Natural Killer cell subsets in hematological diseases : learning for immunotherapy

Abstract : Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate cytotoxic lymphocytes that play an important role in immune control of tumor cell formation and virus infection. In healthy people, NK cell represents heterogeneous populations defined by different phenotypical markers and performing specific functions. NK cells from patients with neoplastic malignancies and viral infection are however typically distinctive from healthy people by the appearance of NK cell subsets, which are differentiated by their CD45 isoform profile. CD45 is a common-leukocyte tyrosine phosphatase abundantly expressed on all nucleated hematopoietic immune cells. Alternative splicing variant resulted in generation of the long-isoform CD45RA and the short-isoform CD45RO, which express differently on naïve and effector/memory T cells. Expression of CD45 isoforms on NK cells is largely unknown. We have previously shown that differential expression of CD45RA and CD45RO isoforms identified specific NK cell subsets in hematological diseases. One question remained unclear: how do these CD45RARO+ NK cell changes when their target cells disappeared? We used NK cells from patients treated with Lenalidomide and the anti-CD20 antibody Obinutuzumab to investigate this and showed a reduction in CD45RARO/CD45RO+ NK cells upon clearance of tumor cells (Chater 4). We observed the same in AML patients after chemotherapy. In this case the CD45RARO+ NK cell subset strongly correlates with trogocytosis of the monocyte/macrophage marker CD14 (Chapter 5). Immunophenotyping of NK cells from HIV-infected patients revealed the presence of CD45RAdim and CD45RO+ cells with reduced CD16 expression and total NKG2D down-modulation. In summary, NK cell from hematological cancers and HIV infection displayed dysfunctional hallmarks and analyzing CD45 isoform profile in these pathological conditions unveils these hallmarks.Finally, in order to regain the anti-tumor immune response in cancer patients, we present an efficient method for expansion of highly activated NK cells from umbilical cord blood (UCB) in vitro. These NK cells prove substantial antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) when used in combination with clinical-approved monoclonal antibodies targeting various tumor antigens. This paves their use in allogeneic NK cell-based immunotherapies.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, September 5, 2018 - 11:21:08 AM
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Dang Nghiem Vo. Natural Killer cell subsets in hematological diseases : learning for immunotherapy. Human health and pathology. Université Montpellier, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018MONTT013⟩. ⟨tel-01868212⟩

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