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Mise en évidence du potentiel thérapeutique de l’adiponectine et de son rôle dans les effets antidépresseurs de l’environnement enrichi

Abstract : Major depression is a complex disorder characterized by behavioral and cognitive impairments triggered by various factors including genetic predispositions, stress and environment. The pathophysiology of depression is poorly understood. Numerous evidence suggests that neuroinflammation is associated with depression. Alternative therapeutic strategies are needed and "positive" life experiences could be an efficient way to help the remission of the disorder. To study the potential antidepressant effects of such “positive” living conditions, we used the enriched environment (EE) paradigm on mice. The aim of our work was to fully characterize the antidepressant and anti-inflammatory effects of EE in a well-characterized murine model of depression-like behavior induced by long-term administration of corticosterone. We showed that EE efficiently reverses the anxiety/depression‐like state of mice and reduces neuroinflammation. Moreover, we identified the adipokine Adiponectin as a key player in the beneficial effects of EE. We reported that increased levels of Adiponectin in the brain led to microglia phenotype and activation state regulation, thus reducing global brain inflammation in mice. Indeed, the anti-inflammatory and antidepressants effects of EE are abolished in Adiponectin deficient mice. We demonstrated that anti-inflammatory actions of Adiponectin on microglia is mediated through the Adiponectin Receptor 1. Those results highlight the key role of the adiponergic system in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we tested the effect of AdipoRon, a potent Adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 agonist on corticosterone-treated mice. AdipoRon successfully reversed the corticosterone-induced depression-like state in mice. AdipoRon exerted its pleiotropic actions on various systems including hippocampal neurogenesis, serotonergic neurotransmission and neuroinflammation, which can explain its antidepressant properties. Together, our findings bring insight into the beneficial effects of "positive" life experiences in depression and neuroinflammation, highlight the pivotal role of Adiponectin pathway and emphasizes that AdipoRon or other Adiponectin receptor agonist may constitute a promising novel antidepressant.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01865840
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Submitted on : Sunday, September 2, 2018 - 1:18:25 AM
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Sarah Nicolas. Mise en évidence du potentiel thérapeutique de l’adiponectine et de son rôle dans les effets antidépresseurs de l’environnement enrichi. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Côte d'Azur, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018AZUR4019⟩. ⟨tel-01865840⟩

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