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Impact des processus photochimiques et biologiques sur la composition chimique du nuage

Abstract : In the context of global warming, more precise knowledge of atmospheric processes is needed to evaluate their impact on the Earth radiative budget. Clouds can limit the increase of temperature but this retroaction is not well understood due to a lack of knowledge of cloud media (like organic fraction composition). From the beginning of atmospheric studies, only chemical, especially radical, reactions was taken into account. However microorganisms metabolically active were found in cloud water arising questions about their role as biocatalyst. They are able to use carboxylic acids as nutriments, to degrade radical precursor (like H2O2) and to survive oxidative stress. The aim of this work is to quantify the impact of photochemical and biological processes on cloud chemistry composition. First, the concentrations of •OH, the most reactive radical, were evaluated and the influence of microorganisms on the concentrations were studied. A new method was developed in artificial medial before direct quantification of steady state •OH concentration in atmospheric waters (rain and cloud waters). Concentrations ranged from 10-17 to 10-15 M and did not change in presence of microorganisms. These measures were lower than concentrations estimated by chemical atmospheric models. A possible explanation was an underestimation of the main sink of this radical (organic matter). To better characterize this fraction, simple aromatic compounds were identified in cloud waters, phenol was found in the 8 samples analyzed. To go further, we studied phenol degradation in detail. Enzyme transcripts involved in phenol degradation were present in cloud water samples showing in situ activity of native bacteria. 93% of tested cultural strains, isolated from cloud waters, were able to degrade phenol. To quantify the relative contribution of radical versus microbial processes allowing phenol degradation, we performed photo-biodegradation experiment with a model strain (Rhodococcus erythropolis PDD-23b-28). Our results showed that these two processes participated equally to phenol degradation, suggesting that microorganisms and radicals can be involved in atmospheric natural remediation.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01865833
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Submitted on : Sunday, September 2, 2018 - 1:15:30 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01865833, version 1

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Audrey Lallement. Impact des processus photochimiques et biologiques sur la composition chimique du nuage. Chimie organique. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017CLFAC066⟩. ⟨tel-01865833⟩

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