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3D Printing and Characterization of PLA Scaffolds for Layer-by-Layer BioAssembly in Tissue Engineering

Abstract : Tissue Engineering (TE) is “an interdisciplinary field that applies principles of engineering and the life sciences toward development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, or improve tissue function”. The First application of TE is to replace damaged tissues by artificial cell-materials products of tissue engineering (TE). Another TE application is to produce 2 or 3 dimensional (2D and 3D) models for biological and pharmacological in vitro studies. These models or tissue replacements can be fabricated using a combination of different interdisciplinary methods of medicine, biology, chemistry, physics, informatics and mechanics, providing specific micro-environment with different cell types, growth factors and matrix.One of the major challenges of tissue engineering is related to limited cell penetration in the inner parts of porous biomaterials. Poor cell viability in the center of engineered tissue is a consequence of limited oxygen and nutrients diffusion due to insufficient vascular network within the entire construct. Layer-by-layer (LBL) BioAssembly is a new approach based on assembly of small cellularized constructs that may lead to homogenous cell distribution and more efficient three dimensional vascularization of large tissue engineering constructs.Our hypothesis is that LBL Bioassembly approach is more suitable for bone regeneration than conventional tissue engineering approach. The primary objective of this thesis was to evaluate the advantages of LBL Bioassembly approach using 3D-printed polymer membranes seeded with human primary cells. We have evaluated the efficiency of vascular network formation in vivo within entire 3D tissue engineering construct using LBL bioassembly approach and comparing it to the conventional approach based on seeding of cells on the surface of massive 3D scaffolds. There was no significant difference in number of formed blood vessels in 3D at the outer parts of constructs implanted subcutaneously in mice 8 weeks post-implantation. But in the inner parts of implants which were not in direct contact with a host tissue, we could observe statistically more blood vessel formation when LBL bioassembly approach was used. This vascular network formation was more important in the case of co-cultures than mono-vultures of HBMSCs.There were several secondary objectives in this work. The first was to fabricate cellularized 3D constructs for bone tissue engineering using poly(lactic) acid (PLA) membranes and human primary cells: human bone marrow stroma cells (HBMSCs) isolated from the bone marrow, and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) isolated from the umbilical cord blood. Then, we have compared different Additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate scaffolds: direct 3D printing (3DP) starting from PLA powder dissolved in chloroform and fused deposition modelling (FDM) using a commercial or a custom-made printer with different resolutions.The custom-made printer equipped with 100 μm nozzle allowed the highest level of printing resolution concerning pores shape and size. In the meantime we evaluated different stabilization systems for layer-by-layer assembling of PLA membranes with human primary cells: the use of 3D printed PLA clips provided the most efficient stabilization to stack PLA membranes in 3D. Another advantage of this stabilization system is that it could be implanted together with LBL constructs. Then we investigated the most suitable cell culture system for such constructs and we observed more efficient cell proliferation and differentiation when co-culture system is used, comparing to mono-cultures.LBL bioassembly approach seems to be suitable solution for efficient vascularization within entire large 3D tissue engineering constructs especially when co-cultures of mesenchymal and endothelial cells are used.
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Submitted on : Sunday, September 2, 2018 - 1:11:36 AM
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Vera Guduric. 3D Printing and Characterization of PLA Scaffolds for Layer-by-Layer BioAssembly in Tissue Engineering. Human health and pathology. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0858⟩. ⟨tel-01865824⟩

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