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Synthesis of Metal and Conjugated Polymer Nanostructures in Hexagonal Mesophases for Application in Fuel Cells and photocatalysis

Abstract : Soft hexagonal mesophases, which consist of quaternary systems (surfactants, brine, oil, and co-surfactant) are used as templates for the synthesis of different nanomaterials such as metal nanostructures, conjugated polymer nanostructures, and metal-polymer nanocomposites. Unlike hard templates, which need a harsh chemical reagent to extract nanomaterials after the synthesis, in soft template hexagonal mesophases, the extraction process of nanomaterials is simple, only by washing with ethanol or 2-propanol. Another interesting property of this class of template lies on its ability to be swollen by controlling the ratio of oil to water.This thesis is divided into three parts: 1) Radiolytic synthesis of metal nanostructures in the aqueous phase of hexagonal mesophases and their application in fuel cells (ethanol oxidation), 2) Synthesis of conjugated polymer nanostructures in the oil phase of hexagonal mesophases for photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, 3) Combined synthesis in the oil and water phases of hexagonal mesophases of metal-polymer nanocomposites.Several metal nanostructures such as PdPt nanoballs with controlled composition and porosity, AuPd and AuPt core shell, bimetallic PtNi and trimetallic AuPdPt porous nanoballs were synthesized by radiolysis in the aqueous phase of hexagonal mesophases. PdPt nanoballs with controlled porosity and composition were used as electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation. The effect of the pore size on their electro active surface and their electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation were studied. AuPd and AuPt core-shell, and trimetallic AuPdPt porous nanoballs were used for ethanol and glucose oxidation. PtNi porous nanoballs were used for H2 evolution and oxygen reduction reaction. Conjugated polymer nanostructures namely P3HT (poly(3-hexylthiophene)) were synthesized in the oil phase of hexagonal mesophases. These polymer nanostructures are highly active for photocatalysis under UV and visible light. Phenol and rhodamine B were used as model pollutants. These photocatalysts are very stable even after repeated cycling. Addition of scavengers and mechanistic studies show that O2.− is the main radical responsible for degradation of phenol. Most interestingly, the photocatalytic activity of these P3HT nanostructures is highly enhanced when they are supported on a solid surface opening new perspectives in photocatalytic reactors and self-cleaning surfaces. Premiminary results on the synthesis of Pt-PDPB (polydiphenylbutadiyne) nanocomposites are also presented in this thesis.
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Dita Floresyona. Synthesis of Metal and Conjugated Polymer Nanostructures in Hexagonal Mesophases for Application in Fuel Cells and photocatalysis. Polymers. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS206⟩. ⟨tel-01865813⟩

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