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Modélisation de stratégies d'introduction de populations, effets Allee et stochasticité

Nicolas Bajeux 1
1 BIOCORE - Biological control of artificial ecosystems
LOV - Laboratoire d'océanographie de Villefranche, CRISAM - Inria Sophia Antipolis - Méditerranée , INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique
Abstract : This thesis investigates introduction strategies of populations in the environment. Two main situations are considered: biological control and species reintroduction. Although these two kinds of introductions are different, many biotic and abiotic processes influence them in a similar way. Introduced populations are often small and may be sensitive to various stochastic factors. Further, small populations may suffer from a decrease of their growth rate when the population is small, a feature called "Allee effect". These processes may interact with introduction strategies and modulate their efficiency. First, we represent the introduction process using impulsive dynamical systems: population dynamics are described by ordinary differential equations that are disrupted at some instants by instantaneous increases of the population size. This approach focuses on the influence of Allee effects on single-species (reintroduction) or predator-prey interactions (biological control). Then, we concentrate on the reintroduction approach and extend the previous deterministic framework to take into consideration stochastic factors arising from the environment or from introductions themselves. Finally, we consider an individual-based model to study the effects of demographic stochasticity which is inherent to small populations. These different approaches allow to investigate the temporal distribution of introductions and determine which introduction strategies maximize the probability of success of introductions.
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Nicolas Bajeux. Modélisation de stratégies d'introduction de populations, effets Allee et stochasticité. Autre. Université Côte d'Azur, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017AZUR4056⟩. ⟨tel-01865809⟩

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