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Émergence, développement et diversification de l'arboriculture en Grèce du Néolithique à l'époque romaine : confrontation des données archéobotaniques, morphométriques, épigraphiques et littéraires

Abstract : Little is known concerning the history of arboriculture in Greece; only the grapevine and the olive tree have been a subject of interest for a long time. The aim of this work is to understand how fruit trees were cultivated in Greece between the Neolithic and the Roman period. This is why published archaeobotanical data (seeds and fruits) from 56 sites were taken into account in our synthesis. A survey of all references to fruits and fruit trees in epigraphic documents (Mycenaean and classic Greek) and in ancient authors has also been achieved. Archaeological pips and stones were submitted to Geometric Morphometry. Our approach reveals how fruit trees were used from the Neolithic up to the Roman period; while the grapevine, the olive tree and the fig tree predominate ail the time, it is clear that the importance of certain wild fruits decreases after the Bronze Age as new others are introduced. The first domesticated grapevines appear during the Bronze Age while a single selected variety of olive tree is present from the early Bronze Age to the Roman period. The first manifestations of arboriculture concern woodland edges and partially cleared land plots, real fruit tree plantations appear during the late Bronze Age, at the latest. Extensive vineyards appear during the Classical period, while a more specialized agriculture aiming at maximum profit characterizes the Roman period, as testified by the works on agronomy and the search for new varieties of olives and grapevines. Despite the search for higher yields, the use of less selected domesticates and wild fruits remains a reality until the roman period.
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Clemence Pagnoux. Émergence, développement et diversification de l'arboriculture en Grèce du Néolithique à l'époque romaine : confrontation des données archéobotaniques, morphométriques, épigraphiques et littéraires. Archéologie et Préhistoire. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PA01H054⟩. ⟨tel-01865509⟩

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