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Rôle des modifications de la chromatine dans la réparation des cassures double-brin de l'ADN et la stabilité génétique

Abstract : The human genome is constantly targeted by DNA damaging agents. These damages are many and varied, such as single and double strand breaks (DSBs). The DSB are highly toxic lesions whose origin can be multiple. Mammalian cells mainly use two DNA repair pathways to repair DSB, homologous recombination (RH), which is dependent on the presence of the intact homologous copy (the sister chromatid) and on the cell cycle stage and the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, which is cell cycle independent and performs direct ligation of the two DNA ends. The repair of DNA damage takes place in a chromatin context that needs to be remodeled to give access to damaged sites. During my work, I studied the chromatin remodeler p400 and the histone variant H2A.Z both involved in chromatin remodeling, to understand their role in DSB repair and genome stability. p400, an ATPase of the SWI2/SNF2 family is involved in the incorporation of H2A.Z in chromatin. I have shown that H2A.Z depletion in the osteosarcoma cell line U2OS and in immortalized human fibroblasts did not alter DSB repair. These results are correlated with the lack of H2A.Z recruitment at DSB observed after local laser irradiation or Chromatin Immunoprecipitation. However, H2A.Z depletion affects cell proliferation and the cell cycle distribution. In addition, I have shown that the chromatin remodeler p400 is a brake to the use of alternative End Joining (alt-EJ) which is a highly mutagenic repair process. The increase in alt-EJ events observed in p400-depleted cells is dependent on CtIP- mediated resection of DNA ends. Moreover, p400 depletion leads to the recruitment of poly(ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) and DNA ligase 3 at DSB, leading to selective cell killing by PARP inhibitors. Altogether these results show that p400 acts as a brake to prevent alt-EJ dependent genetic instability and underline its potential value as a clinical marker.
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Gemael Cedrick Taty Taty. Rôle des modifications de la chromatine dans la réparation des cassures double-brin de l'ADN et la stabilité génétique. Génétique humaine. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016TOU30190⟩. ⟨tel-01865222⟩

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