Effets de la mosaïque paysagère proche, de l’histoire et des pratiques de gestion locales sur les communautés taxonomiques et fonctionnelles des Collemboles du sol des parcs urbains méditerranéens : les cas de Naples (Italie) et Montpellier (France)

Abstract : Urbanization causes a huge diversity in landscapes, environmental conditions and green spaces history. This phenomena also induces different vegetation management practices, which may affect urban fauna. However, scarce attention has been paid to belowground communities in cities and Collembola hosted by soils of urban parks represent a neglected research topic. These taxa are very common in most soils and have been recognized as proper indicators for soil monitoring programs.The effects of diverse abiotic filters on Collembola in Naples and Montpellier public parks has been studied from both taxonomic and functional points of view. In particular, the PhD work was developed based on three principal axes, aiming to test the effects of:- the neighboring landscape context,- the park historical dynamics,- the current park management.The analyses carried out in Montpellier showed different neighboring landscape patterns to which belonged diverse species communities. Indeed, more heterogeneous landscape patterns guarantee the richest and most structured species communities.The study conducted in Naples highlighted that maintaining a specific land cover, especially a canopy cover, jointly to a litter layer on soils are the main factors assuring more structured species communities. To a less extent, park age and the previous land use of the area were also important drivers in modelling species assemblages.Finally, a functional analysis (i.e. morphological traits and microhabitat preferences) was applied to evaluate the brushwood management intensification in woody areas of both cities parks. A clear abiotic gradient was observed. By contrast, functional responses of Collembola communities to brushwood management intensification contradicted our research hypothesis based on the recent literature. Thus, it seems that brushwood removal does not cause shifts in species trait patterns in urban parks.This PhD work increased fundamental knowledge on urban park Collembola ecology, and it strives to integrate these findings in a more suitable landscaping and management of urban green spaces.
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Vittoria Milano. Effets de la mosaïque paysagère proche, de l’histoire et des pratiques de gestion locales sur les communautés taxonomiques et fonctionnelles des Collemboles du sol des parcs urbains méditerranéens : les cas de Naples (Italie) et Montpellier (France). Sciences agricoles. Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017MON30088⟩. ⟨tel-01863434⟩

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