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Étude du métabolisme de la glutamine dans les leucémies aiguës myéloïdes

Abstract : Cancer cells survival is dependent on high energetic and biosynthetic activity, and glutamine is involved in many metabolic processes necessary for this adaptation. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), growth and proliferation are promoted by activation of several signaling pathways, including mTORC1. Essential amino acids, in particular leucine, are required for mTORC1 activation. Glutamine enters into the cell via the SLC1A5 transporter and then allows the input of leucine via the bidirectional SLC7A5 transporter. Therefore, the intracellular glutamine concentration is a limiting step in the activation of mTORC1 by leucine. We studied the effects of glutamine deprivation in AML using different tools (medium without glutamine, shRNA against the SLC1A5 glutamine transporter and the drug L-asparaginase, which has an extracellular glutaminase activity) and observed mTORC1 and protein synthesis inhibition. SLC1A5 transporter knockdown inhibits tumor growth in a xenotransplantation model. L-asparaginase inhibits mTORC1 and induces apoptosis in proportion to its glutaminase activity and independently of asparagine concentration. Glutamine privation induces the expression of glutamine synthase and autophagy, and these two processes are involved in the resistance to glutamine privation in some leukemic cell lines. However, apoptosis induced by glutamine privation is not related to the inhibition of mTORC1, since it is not modified in the presence of a constitutively active mutant of mTOR. We next focused on the oxidative phosphorylation, another glutamine dependent pathway in many cancers. The initial step of the intracellular catabolism of glutamine is the conversion of glutamine to glutamate by enzymes called glutaminases. Different glutaminases isoforms exist that are encoded by the GLS1 and GLS2 genes. Glutamate is then converted to α-ketoglutarate, an essential TCA cycle intermediate. In AML cell lines, we observed that glutamine privation inhibits mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The protein glutaminase C (GAC), an isoform of GLS1, is constantly expressed in AML but also in normal CD34 + hematopoietic progenitors. The knockdown of GLS1 by inducible shRNA or by the CB-839 compound reduced oxidative phosphorylation, leading to proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in leukemia cells. Genetic invalidation of GLS1 inhibits tumor formation and improves survival of mice in a xenograft model. Conversely, the targeting of GLS1 has no cytotoxic or cytostatic effects on normal hematopoietic progenitors. These anti-leukemic effects are inhibited by the addition of α-ketoglutarate, and those induced by the CB-839 are suppressed in the presence of an ectopically expressed GACK320A hyperactive mutant, confirming the essential role of maintaining an active TCA cycle in AML cells. Finally, we showed that glutaminolysis inhibition induces the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and acts synergistically with the specific inhibition of BCL-2 by ABT-199. These results demonstrate that specific targeting of glutaminolysis is another way to exploit glutamine addiction in AML and that an active TCA cycle in essential for AML cell survival.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01860358, version 1

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Nathalie Jacque. Étude du métabolisme de la glutamine dans les leucémies aiguës myéloïdes. Hématologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCB221⟩. ⟨tel-01860358⟩

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