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Étude post-GWAS des gènes de susceptibilité au diabète de type 2 : rôle phare dans la fonction de la cellule β pancréatique

Abstract : Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a plethora of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes, but most often with little information about the mechanism underlying the relationship between these genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes and the diabetic phenotype. Indeed, these SNPs are often noncoding and have a modest effect on the risk of type 2 diabetes, making difficult their functional study. At the beginning of the GWAS era, it has been suggested that susceptibility genes for type 2 diabetes are strongly involved in pancreatic β cell gene function, while no functional studies had been systematically performed. In this context, we conducted a “fishing” study to decipher this large amount of data generated by GWAS and to pinpoint potentially important genes that may be new therapeutic targets. The first objective of my thesis was to study the expression of type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes in a panel of human tissues comprising pancreatic and insulin-sensitive tissues using an unbiased technique of quantification of genes expression in order to show that these genes associated with type 2 diabetes were enriched in pancreatic β-cells. We then performed functional studies on the thirty mostly expressed genes in our cell model by insulin secretion tests, cell viability test, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and Western blotting in the human pancreatic β cell line (EndoC-βH1). These cells are able to secrete insulin in response to glucose and other secretagogues. Our goal was to study the role of these type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes in pancreatic β cell function, particularly in insulin secretion. Our expression study of type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes showed that their expression is significantly enriched in pancreatic β cells and the EndoC-βH1 cell line. For five genes associated with type 2 diabetes (TBC1D4, TCF19, KCNK16, CDKN2A and SLC30A8) with an already known presence and function in pancreatic β cell, we showed a significant variation in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion after gene silencing, in agreement with the literature. In addition, we identified four type 2 diabetes associated genes (PRC1, SRR, ZFAND3 and ZFAND6), with a significant decrease in insulin secretion after gene silencing without already know function in pancreatic β cell. RNA-seq has shown a significant association between the extinction of these genes and molecular networks related to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (e.g. apoptosis of pancreatic cells, insulinemia, glycolysis, endoplasmic reticulum stress response...). The assessment of the expression of our four genes in the islets of obese mice (ob/ob) or treated with streptozotocin shows a positive correlation between their expression and the expression of insulin. Our study has shown that post-GWAS functional studies are important and can help to define the causal link between these genes and the disease, and therefore to make progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. This study allowed us to identify genes whose function in β cell was not anterior known and which are involved in pancreatic β cell function and the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, August 22, 2018 - 3:49:23 PM
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Fatou Kiné Ndiaye. Étude post-GWAS des gènes de susceptibilité au diabète de type 2 : rôle phare dans la fonction de la cellule β pancréatique. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LIL2S039⟩. ⟨tel-01859783⟩

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