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Influence de la déformation plastique sur la résistance à la corrosion de l'acier inoxydable lean duplex UNS S32304

Abstract : Lean duplex stainless steels are alloys basically composed of iron, chromium and nickel in which two cristallographic phases coexist (austenite - γ and ferrite - α). These steels present high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, and find their main applications in the offshore oil exploration and water desalinization sectors. Despite the excellent properties, the effect of plastic strain induced by forming on the corrosion resistance of these materials is yet to be understood, and may represent an improvement lever for these alloys. This study had thereby the aim of determining the microstructure parameters related to plastic strain and that might have an impact on the oxidation reaction of the metal and on the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), which are often connected to corrosion phenomena of metals in acidic environments. The role of the emergence of slip steps, which are the result at the surface of the sliding of dislocations inside the metal while it deforms plastically, were also studied. Specimens for tensile testing made from UNS S32304 lean duplex stainless steel were strained by interrupted uniaxial tensile testing at different levels ranging from 0% to approximately 20%. A group of specimens with and another group without presence of slip steps on the surface were produced. A study of the plasticity mechanisms of the lean duplex stainless steel was carried out. It mainly involved characterizations of structures of dislocations, internal stresses and slip steps. It distinguished the ferritic and austenitic phases. Corrosion rates (oxidation) of the metal and HER taking place at its surface were studied by electrochemical technique in acidic chloride medium. It was demonstrated that, in the absence of slip steps, plastic strain has no detectable effect on its corrosion resistance in the conditions of the study. Nevertheless, slip steps have shown a strong impact on corrosion rates. That was related to a modification of HER kinetics. For low stain levels (up to approximately 3%), corrosion rates as well as HER kinetics strongly increased (up to 4 times), and then decreased and reached values similar to the ones of the unstrained state at approximately 10% of strain. Tests on monophasic steels having chemical compositions similar to those of each phase of the lean duplex stainless steel have confirmed this important role played by steps. The same has been observed by a local electrochemical technique based on microcapillaries. After confrontation with a simulation based on literature, the analysis points to an explanation involving the electron work function of the surface presenting slip steps and to the role played by the emergence of (111) plans.
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Charles David. Influence de la déformation plastique sur la résistance à la corrosion de l'acier inoxydable lean duplex UNS S32304. Autre. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAI026⟩. ⟨tel-01858717⟩

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