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Modélisation et caractérisation expérimentale des étanchéités faciales hydrodynamiques

Abstract : The main objective of this thesis is to study, through a numerical model and experimentations, the performance and behaviour of different spiral groove face seals, usually used for gas applications, in the case of liquid lubrication. The aim of this work will be to evaluate the eventuality to replace smooth mechanical face seals used in liquid cryogenic turbopumps space rocket applications by spiral groove face seals.The literature presents different theoretical and experimental studies on surface texturing, two-phase flow and turbulence. These last two points may appear when sealing a cryogenic fluid. A numerical model has been developped in finite elements. It solves the Reynolds equation and the energy equation into the fluid film. This equation is expressed using the enthalpy and can thus be used in case of homogeneous fluid phase change. Fluid/structure coupling is considered to obtain thermoelastic deformations of the solids. The next part of this study is dedicated to experiments with water lubricated spiral groove face seals with different groove depths. A comparison with smooth face seals has been done showing that the friction torque of the spiral groove face seals is lower than the smooth face seals one. On the other hand, the spiral groove flow rate is higher. Sharp changes in behaviour such as, laminar to turbulent transition from a Reynolds number equals to 1500, or two-phase flow at low pressure, high angular speed and supplying temperature of the fluid, are observed. The last part compares the thermoelastohydrodynamic theoretical model to experimental results in laminar flow, for one-phase and two-phase flow. The model is able to capture the experimental findings. Even if some convergence difficulties are encountered in two-phase flow, the model can be used for seal design in industrial applications.
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Mathieu Rouillon. Modélisation et caractérisation expérimentale des étanchéités faciales hydrodynamiques. Génie mécanique [physics.class-ph]. Université de Poitiers, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017POIT2267⟩. ⟨tel-01858365⟩

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