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Rôle écologique de la sporulation in-planta dans les symbioses actinorhiziennes : cas de la symbiose Alnus - Frankia

Abstract : Microbial biogeography would be based on the ability of microorganisms to disperse across time and space, as a function of abiotic factors such as soil properties, climate, and of biotic interactions, in particular with the host in the case of symbionts, but also on life history traits such as the ability to sporulate. Frankia sp. is a spore-forming and nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium that has a complex biogeography given its abilities for both saprophytic life and root symbiotic interaction with actinorhizal plants such as alders (Alnus, Betulaceae). Two distinct groups of Frankia lineages have been described according to a major phenotypic divergence, based on the presence (Sp+) or the absence (Sp-) of spores in planta.. To the best of our knowledge, this endophytic sporulation is an original trait in a symbiotic context and very little is known about its incidence in Frankia biogeography. This work integrates descriptive and experimental approaches on both field and laboratory areas, in order to improve the understanding of the ecological role of Frankia in planta sporulation. First, we have extended the description of the phylobiogeography of Sp+ Frankia strains to validate the previously proposed distribution pattern focused on cold environements at high altitude or high latitude. A phylogeny has been computed using a large number of nodular strains coming from the 3 continents of the Northern Hemisphere and 10 different Alnus species. Special attention was paid to geographic areas where a higher diversity was expected, in Asia, and in its glacial refuges. Second, we studied the influence of the host-plant on the distribution of Fankia Sp+ and the incidence of Sp+ in the symbiotic interaction. Experimental crosses have been performed to disentangle host and climate effects and to test the incidence of the Sp+ trait in terms of infectivity, competitiveness and host-range. Finally, we studied the ecological consequences of the Alnus/Frankia symbiotic complex, on the microbial diversity and on the nitrogen cycle functionning, with respect to the sporulation of Frankia and to the Alnus expansion on sub-/alpine grasslands. Soils analyses were performed in association with measures of nitrification and denitrification, as well as global and functional microbial diversity analyses, in Sp+, Sp- or mixed alder stands and at different colonization stages. In each part of this work, alder ectomycorhizae were analyzed to compare the distribution pattern between the two symbionts and to highlight potential interactions with the Sp+ trait of Frankia. Our results show the dominance of Sp+ strains in nodules of alder species from cold environments over the 3 continents of the Holarctic zone, with original diversity patterns in alder area of origin and in glacial refuges. Even if these strains are genetically homogenous, host-specific clusters were observed in the phylogeny. Crosses revealed that Sp+ strains were more infective and competitive than Sp- strains. Moreover, unlike Sp- strains that harbor a wide host-range, Sp+ strains have a narrower specificity leading to association’s incompatibilities and suggesting strong host dependence. For the first time, modifications of microbial communities were revealed in response to the Alnus-Frankia symbiotic complex colonization and were linked to a stimulation of the nitrogen cycle in the sub-/alpine grasslands. The first comparative results of nitrogen fixation between Sp+ and Sp- strains in natura suggest a maximal efficiency of fixation, representing almost 100% of the alder nitrogen. However, unlike previous reports in literature, no pattern was observed between Sp+ and Sp- strains, suggesting a complex effect of seasonality, alder age as well as that of nodules. Altogether, the previous results contribute to a better understanding of the Frankia biogeography drivers and allow us to discuss the expected evolution of distribution pattern in response to the global warming
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Submitted on : Monday, August 20, 2018 - 1:01:20 AM
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Guillaume Schwob. Rôle écologique de la sporulation in-planta dans les symbioses actinorhiziennes : cas de la symbiose Alnus - Frankia. Ecologie, Environnement. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE1037⟩. ⟨tel-01858126⟩

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