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Caractérisation et modélisation de la co-évolution des réseaux de transport et des territoires

Abstract : The identification of structuring effects of transportation infrastructure on territorial dynamics remains an open research problem. This issue is one of the aspects of approaches on complexity of territorial dynamics, within which territories and networks would be co-evolving. The aim of this thesis is to challenge this view on interactions between networks and territories, both at the conceptual and empirical level, by integrating them in simulation models of territorial systems. The intrinsically multidisciplinary nature of the question requires first to proceed to a quantitative epistemology analysis, that allow us to draw a map of the scientific landscape and to give a description of common features and specificities of models studying the co-evolution between network and territories within each discipline. We propose consequently a definition of co-evolution and an empirical method for its characterization, based on spatio-temporal correlation analysis. Two complementary modeling approaches, that correspond to different scales and ontologies, are then explored. At the macroscopic scale, we build a family of models inheriting from interaction models within system of cities, developed by the Evolutive Urban Theory (Pumain, 1997). Their exploration shows that they effectively capture co-evolutionary dynamics, and their calibration on demographic data for the French system of cities (1830-1999) quantifies the evolution of interaction processes such as the tunnel effect or the role of centrality. At the mesoscopic scale, a morphogenesis model captures the co-evolution of the urban form and of network topology. It is calibrated on corresponding indicators for local form and topology, computed for all Europe. Multiple network evolution processes are shown complementary to reproduce the large variety of observed configurations, at the level of indicators but also interactions between indicators. These results suggest new research directions for urban models integrating co- evolutive dynamics in a multi-scale perspective.
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Contributor : Juste Raimbault <>
Submitted on : Friday, August 17, 2018 - 11:12:07 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, January 19, 2021 - 11:08:37 AM


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Juste Raimbault. Caractérisation et modélisation de la co-évolution des réseaux de transport et des territoires. Géographie. Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot, 2018. Français. ⟨tel-01857741⟩



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