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Effets des changements de pratiques agronomiques sur la diversité des vers de terre et collemboles- conséquences sur leurs fonctions associées.

Abstract : Soil is one of the essential components supporting the functioning of the ecosystem. It is the support of primary production; an habitat for biodiversity, and it fulfills many ecological processes. Human activities, including intensive agricultural practices, have led to impaired the soil causing a sharp decline in their biodiversity. In response to these effects, new agricultural practices have been developed to preserve the soils and the ecosystem services they provide. These so-called innovative practices rely mainly on the reduction of tillage, integrated management of crop residues, the installation of permanent plant cover or the introduction of legumes into crop rotations. It is in this context of changes in agricultural practices that this thesis topic lays. This thesis aims to better understand the effects of the adoption of these innovative management practices on (i) the diversity of the macro and mesofauna communities soil and (ii) soil functioning in terms of organic carbon storage (basic food source), soil structure and pore size distribution (living environment). During the different chapters of this work, we highlighted three actions related to innovative agricultural practices combining in situ and ex situ experimental approaches. The aim of the first action was to study the combined effect of the introduction of legume (faba bean) and the reduction of tillage on the endogenous compartment. To answer this question, we developed an empirical experimental design made with the combination of situations encountered on farms. Our results showed that theinteraction between the two innovative practices did not result in a significant increase in the diversity of soil fauna. Microbial functions and the dynamics of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) also do not seem to be affected by these practices. It turns out that the beneficial effects of these innovative practices cannot be considered without taking into account how they are implemented at the scale of crop rotations and technical itineraries. This allowed us to promote a second action whose objective was to follow, under the same pedoclimatic conditions and the same technical itineraries, the long-term effect (four years) of five different management regimes on the communities of soil fauna. Treatments included combinations of different crops, different rates of nitrogen fertilization, incorporation or removal of crop residues and different plowing intensities. The results showed that the reduction of tillage intensity favored the diversity of Collembola and its functional groups by improving habitatconditions through the increase of microbial carbon biomass (trophic source). In addition, the other components of management, namely the "reduction of nitrogen inputs" and the "restitution / export of crop residues", had no effect on springtails (abundance and wealth), in particular on those living in the soil, whether hemi or euedaphic. However, this study demonstrates that the dissimilarity in the composition of Collembola assemblages increases with the temporal differentiation of agricultural practices, and tillage was the main factor responsible for this trajectory.
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Sekou Fanta Mady Coulibaly. Effets des changements de pratiques agronomiques sur la diversité des vers de terre et collemboles- conséquences sur leurs fonctions associées.. Biodiversité et Ecologie. Normandie Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018NORMR005⟩. ⟨tel-01857014⟩

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