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Étude de la diversité neutre et adaptative chez l'anémone de mer symbiotique Anemonia viridis : apport de techniques de type Next-Generation Sequencing dans les questions de délimitation d’espèces et d’adaptation locale

Cédric Mallien 1
1 SM - Symbiose Marine
Evolution Paris Seine
Abstract : The symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis has five morphs described using morphological traits. First, the taxonomical status of three of the morphs of A. viridis (var. rufescens, rustica and smaragdina) was studied using stress gene markers and RAD markers. We revealed that the three morphs were not different species, but that A. viridis was split into four polymorphic independent genetic lineages based on geographical origin (three in the Mediterranean Sea, one in the English Channel). Using ITS2 sequence variation, we could not detect any implication of the symbiont (Symbiodinium sp) in the morph differentiation, but we revealed a divergence in symbiont composition among the geographic independent lineages of the animal host. If no effect of the symbiont was detected, a variable distribution of the ITS2 variants based on geography was revealed. Moreover, A. viridis lives in highly contrasted environments, making it an ideal species to study local adaptation. Thus, local adaptation was tested on A. viridis by comparing populations coming from contrasted environments (shallow vs. deep and lagoon vs. sea). Using RAD and stress genes markers in a search for outlier loci, we revealed no candidate adaptive genes under our environmental conditions. In conclusion, Anemonia viridis seems to be a very plastic organism, with a high intrinsic polymorphism and a high acclimation potential.
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Cédric Mallien. Étude de la diversité neutre et adaptative chez l'anémone de mer symbiotique Anemonia viridis : apport de techniques de type Next-Generation Sequencing dans les questions de délimitation d’espèces et d’adaptation locale. Ecologie, Environnement. Université Côte d'Azur, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017AZUR4111⟩. ⟨tel-01852571⟩

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