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Evaluation de la durabilité et des processus d’adaptation des exploitations agricoles familiales en lien avec les ressources en eau souterraine et le développement des filières agricoles : cas de la plaine du Saïs (Maroc)

Abstract : Agriculture based on the massive use of non-renewable resources and the intensification of production systems show its limits, which question this development path. Yet this agricultural model has been developed in the Saïs plain, particularly in family farms. This development has resulted in the development of income-generating sectors that are intensively managed, with few technical supports. This dynamic has led to a groundwater overexploitation and pollution, and price fluctuations of agricultural products. The sustainability of family farms is questioned, especially since Moroccan agricultural policy encourages an intensive development path. This issue has been studied based on three sub-questions, each addressing the sustainability of family farms from a different perspective. These sub-questions were investigated thanks to a sample of 40 farms, chosen for their diversity of production systems. We used different tools for the data analysis.The first sub-question dealt with the sustainability of farms related to their evolving dynamics over the past 60 years. Seven pathways were identified based on several internal and external drivers. These pathways have resulted currently in three main farm types, differing in their production activities. T1 includes farms close to the original traditional system, based on land without a groundwater access; T2 gather farms cultivating a diversity of irrigated productions; T3 gather specialized farms.The second sub-question aims to evaluate the sustainability of family farms and to formalize its determinants, by mobilizing a research viewpoint. This analysis was based on a sustainability assessment tool (IDEA), adapted to the context of Saïs. Environmental sustainability depends on the diversification of activities and farm autonomy degree; socio-territorial sustainability is linked to the degree of farmer involvement in the territorial dynamics; and economic sustainability depends on the production system and the farm’ structural factors. However, general trend shows an antagonism between environmental and economic sustainability.The third sub-question explores farmers' perceptions of sustainability and how these perceptions influence their management strategies. A first group of farmers perceives sustainability through the combination of profitability and farm natural resources preservation. They implement a strategy of income security and low intensive practices. A second group links sustainability to profitability and adaptation to farms external changes. They implement a strategy of farm flexibility to seize opportunities. Finally, a third group perceives sustainability through modernist agricultural model. They implement an entrepreneurial strategy, based on maximization of income.This study shows both divergence and convergence viewpoints of sustainability concept and its implementation in agriculture, between researchers and farmers, for instance on production practices or access to natural resources. To fill this gap between the various stakeholder’s perceptions, environmental regulation, extension and accompanying measures must be considered collectively by farmers, authorities and researchers.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01848725
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Submitted on : Wednesday, July 25, 2018 - 10:20:07 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01848725, version 1

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Mariem Baccar Ben Lamine. Evaluation de la durabilité et des processus d’adaptation des exploitations agricoles familiales en lien avec les ressources en eau souterraine et le développement des filières agricoles : cas de la plaine du Saïs (Maroc). Sciences agricoles. Montpellier SupAgro; Institut agronomique et vétérinaire Hassan II (Maroc), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017NSAM0018⟩. ⟨tel-01848725⟩

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