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Etude des mécanismes d'élongation du follicule ovarien de Drosophila melanogaster.

Abstract : Tissue elongation plays a key role during development. Schematically, this morphogenetic process can be described by three main parameters: the cue orienting the elongation, the movement generating force and the associated cellular behavior. The Drosophila ovarian follicle, initially spherical, elongates as it develops, ending as a 2.5 time longer than wide mature egg. I found that follicles elongate through at least three consecutive phases and I aimed to determine the parameters of the early phase. The signal comes from a cluster of cells located at each pole of the follicle secreting the Jak-Stat pathway ligand and the subsequent activation of the pathway as a gradient from the poles. A pulling force is generated by the Jak-Stat dependent apical pulsations of the cells following the same gradient. The elongation is stabilized by oriented cell intercalations along the elongation axis and a gradient of apical constriction. Our data allow proposing a mechanism where a gradient of transcription factor activity can lead to epithelial elongation without any planar polarity requirement.
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Hervé Alegot. Etude des mécanismes d'élongation du follicule ovarien de Drosophila melanogaster.. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016CLF1MM06⟩. ⟨tel-01845968⟩

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