Développement d'un modèle microphysique de nuages pour un modèle de climat global vénusien

Abstract : The conditions on the surface of Venus are infernal: temperature of more than 400 C, 90 times the Earth's atmospheric pressure in an atmosphere composed of 96 % of carbon dioxide. A distinctive characteristic of this planet is the 20 km thick opaque cloud layer, which enshrouds the planet. Clouds have a crucial role in radiative transfer, atmospheric dynamics, in the cycle of some chemical species like sulphur and more generally in the climate of Venus. Despite the numerous space missions devoted to this object since 1961, there are few in-situ measurements. The lower cloud layers are di cult to study by satellite, so there are still many questions about clouds: their properties and their radiative, dynamic and chemical impacts are poorly constrained. Predominantly composed of sulphuric acid solution, the particles are supposed to be spherical and liquid and compose the clouds that are vertically spread between approximately 50 and 70 km of altitude, surrounded by hazes between approximately 30 and 50 km and above 70 km. Based on observations the droplets have been classied into three modes according to their size and composition: modes 1 and 2 respectively for small (r = 0.2 μm) and medium particles (r = 1.0 μm), and a third mode that would contain the largest particles (r = 3.5 μm). The latter mode, which has been detected by the Pioneer Venus probe, remains uncertain in composition and existence, and is not taken into account in our study. To complete and better understand the observational data, a modal microphysical model, called MAD-Muphy (Modal Aerosol Dynamics with Microphysics), has been developed. The goal is to integrate MAD-Muphy into the venusian global climate model (IPSL-VGCM), so we must limit the number of variables that the VGCM must follow in time and space (also called tracers). The moment method is already used in the Titan and Mars GCMs and is a good compromise between the accuracy of the results and the computation time. MAD-Muphy is the refore based on this representation for a pressure and a temperature of one atmospheric layer (or 0D). The thesis presented here details the derivation of the mathematical expressions of the microphysical equations with moments, presents the new MAD-Muphy model as well as the hypotheses that were necessary for its development. We will first determine the characteristic timescale of each microphysical process and we will study their behaviour in 0D. Then, our results will be compared with those of the SALSA sectional model in 0D.
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Sabrina Guilbon. Développement d'un modèle microphysique de nuages pour un modèle de climat global vénusien. Astrophysique [astro-ph]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLV006⟩. ⟨tel-01845959⟩

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