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Education thérapeutique et insuffisance cardiaque en médecine générale

Abstract : The European Society of Cardiology guidelines recommend non-pharmacological management to improve patients’ quality of life. In France, patient education programs delivered by hospital multidisciplinary teams in outpatient clinics have been assessed for their impact in patients with heart failure (HF). Some international studies assessed patient education interventions for heart failure patients recruited in the hospital. These programs were delivered by hospital multidisciplinary teams. Others have recruited patients with heart failure in primary care but the patient education programs were delivered by nurses or general practitioner assistants. This does not reflect the situation of the majority of patients in France, most of whom are ambulatory and cared for by general practitioners (GPs). Therefore, more evidence is needed on the effect of patient education programs delivered by GPs. As GPs are the doctors closest to patients, we hypothesized that their patient education could improved the HF patients quality of life. The ETIC (Education thérapeutique des patients insuffisants cardiaques) trial aimed to determine whether a pragmatic education intervention in general practice could improve the quality of life of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) compared with routine care. This cluster randomised controlled clinical trial included 241 patients with CHF attending 54 general practitioners (GPs) in France and involved 19 months of follow-up. The GPs in the intervention group were trained during an interactive 2-day workshop to provide a patient education program. Several patient education sessions were simulated during the 2-day workshop. Patients had a further four education sessions, at 4, 7, 10 and 13 months, followed by an overview session at 19 months. The primary outcome was patients’ quality of life, as measured by the MOS 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), a generic instrument, and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ). The mean age of the patients was 74 years (± 10.5), 62% were men and their mean left-ventricular ejection fraction was 49.3% (± 14.3). At the end of the follow-up period, the mean MLHFQ scores in the Intervention and Control Groups were 33.4 ± 22.1 versus 27.2 ± 23.3 (p = 0.74, intra-cluster coefficient [ICC] = 0.11). At the end of the follow-up period, SF-36 mental and physical scores in the Intervention and Control Groups were 58 ± 22.1 versus 58.7 ± 23.9 (p = 0.58, ICC = 0.01) and 52.8 ± 23.8 versus 51.6 ± 25.5 (p = 0.57, ICC = 0.01), respectively. Patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in the intervention group and in the control group were respectively: 93 (80.9%) and 94 (74.6%) (p = 0.24). A comprehensive data set of this trial was used to assess the prescription behaviour of GPs: GP’s guideline adherence for pharmacotherapy of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients and to describe pharmacotherapy of HFpEF patients. Conclusions Patient education delivered by GPs to elderly patients with stable heart failure in the ETIC program did not demonstrate an improvement in their quality of life compared with routine care. Further research on improving the quality of life of elderly patients with CHF in primary care is needed. Patient education strategies and methods, as well as relevant tools and adapted criteria used to assess them, remain a field of research to develop. This area of investigation will be the following of this work.
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Hélène Vaillant-Roussel. Education thérapeutique et insuffisance cardiaque en médecine générale. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016CLF1MM13⟩. ⟨tel-01845609⟩



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