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Etude des mécanismes de l'action antalgique de la stimulation magnétique transcranienne. : Focus sur la douleur de la Sclérose en Plaques.

Abstract : Neuropathic pain is common, debilitating and often difficult to treat with the drugs we currently have. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of these pains and the development of new therapeutics are needed. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a technique for evaluating cortical excitability and modulating pain, and could be an interesting avenue. Multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently causes neuropathic pain and is the pathology on which this work has focused. The aim of the latter was first of all to precisely define the characteristics of pain in MS, then to test in healthy subjects new frequencies of repetitive TMS (rTMS) in an attempt to improve and better understand the analgesic effects of this technique and finally, to perform a therapeutic study of the effect of rTMS in patients with central neuropathic pain related to MS.During the first part of this work, we conducted a postal survey addressed to 1300 MS patients, which showed that 51% of patients had pain with neuropathic features, 46% of migraine headaches and that these two symptoms were not independent. but seemed to be mediated by distinct mechanisms.The second part of this work started with a review of the literature concerning the mechanisms of action of rTMS used for analgesic purposes. We then conducted a study involving 14 healthy subjects, which showed that a new frequency of rTMS, prolonged continuous theta-burst stimulation (pcTBS), made it possible to obtain a more important cold-pain treatment than the conventional 10 Hz rTMS. after stimulation of the left primary motor cortex (M1). In these healthy subjects, the analgesic effect was not related to a modulation of the excitability of the primary motor cortex or to an increase in the modulation of pain induced by conditioning stimulation.The last part of the work is in progress. It consists of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial involving 3 parallel groups (10 Hz rTMS, pcTBS and placebo rTMS targeting the left M1). Sixty-six MS patients with refractory neuropathic pain will be included (22 per group). They will receive one rTMS session per day for five consecutive days and will be followed for one month. The primary endpoint is variation in pain between the week prior to rTMS and the eighth day after the first rTMS. Secondary physiopathological objectives (imaging and cortical excitability) imply the inclusion of 40 MS patients presenting no pain (STIMASEP, NCT02059096).
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Xavier Moisset. Etude des mécanismes de l'action antalgique de la stimulation magnétique transcranienne. : Focus sur la douleur de la Sclérose en Plaques.. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016CLF1MM01⟩. ⟨tel-01845598⟩

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