Asthma therapeutic management : a pharmacoepidemiological approach

Abstract : : Asthma is a worldwide non-communicable disease affecting around 10% of children and adults in France, with substantial socio-economic impacts. This is a complex chronic respiratory disease characterized by phenotypic heterogeneity and fluctuations of clinical expression over time. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) remain the gold standard to assess medication efficacy and safety. Nevertheless, pharmacoepidemiological studies have a helpful design to complement RCT findings, but are still limited in asthma. This thesis in pharmacoepidemiology, relying on two complementary French cohorts, aimed to add information on the assessment of the quality of asthma therapeutic management in real life. Specific aims were to investigate: i) the long-term benefits of inhaled corticosteroids in asthma, ii) the controller-to-total asthma medication ratio and its fluctuations over time in the elderly, and iii) the polymedication in elderly asthma.The short-term efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids on asthma has been largely established, but their long-term benefits have rarely been assessed. We estimated the long-term effects of inhaled corticosteroids on 245 adults with persistent asthma who participated to the EGEA study. Applying a propensity score method to take into account the indication bias did not offer evidence of a statistical significant long-term benefit of ICS used regularly or continuously over twelve years on respiratory health. However, a trend for benefits of long-term ICS exposure was observed on lung function evolution. Asthma therapeutic management in the elderly relies on studies performed in younger populations, postulating that its efficacy is similar in this specific population. Some quality of care markers, mainly based on US drug administrative databases, have been proposed in childhood and adulthood with asthma. However, the relevance of such asthma medication ratios has been poorly addressed in older populations, and its fluctuations over time have never been characterized. Our study, conducted among 4,328 elderly women with ever asthma from the Asthma-E3N study and using drug administrative databases, showed that the controller-to-total asthma medication ratio is also relevant in the elderly and identified specific patterns of fluctuations of the ratio significantly associated with the subsequent risk for poor asthma-related outcomes. The elderly population frequently suffers from multimorbidity, leading to polymedication and potential altered response to treatment. To which extent asthma-related comorbidities and their treatments impact on asthma phenotypes and medications remains unknown. Therefore, we applied an integrative method on a drug administrative database to characterize the medication network in elderly women with asthma from the Asthma-E3N study. The medication network (“Pharmacome”) in elderly asthma confirmed the complexity of therapeutic management in this population and highlighted links between medications. Applying a clustering method on drug use among participants with asthma, we identified three clusters of individuals characterized by their profiles of treatment use, which showed different risk levels for subsequent poor asthma characteristics (uncontrolled asthma, asthma attacks/exacerbations, impaired health-related quality of life).In conclusion, our findings are both of public health and clinical interests. Claims data are relevant to identify patients at high risk for poor asthma prognosis at the population level. Our work in pharmacoepidemiology, relying on health administrative databases, provides new insights into the assessment of asthma therapeutic management and the inter-relationship between asthma medications and medications for comorbid conditions......
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Sébastien Chanoine. Asthma therapeutic management : a pharmacoepidemiological approach. Human health and pathology. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAS054⟩. ⟨tel-01844010⟩

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