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Etude de la relation mycoparasitaire Trichoderma harzianum avec Fusarium solani chez l’Olivier ; caractérisations moléculaires et fonctionnelles des aquaporines chez Trichoderma harzianum

Abstract : Biological disease control through the use of microorganisms has a great potential for future use in integrated pest management. In a multidisciplinary and fundamental context of molecular physio-phytopathology and to provide solutions for the actors in the olive profession and the consumers, we have been studying the activity of a fungal biocontrol agent, Trichoderma harzianum (strain Ths97) against the olive tree pathogen Fusarium solani (strain Fso14), which causes major problems for olive production in Tunisia and elsewhere. The project consists of two parts. In the first part, we have demonstrated that Ths97 is a biocontrol agent effective against the F. solani Fso14 pathogen. Induction of plant defence responses by Ths97 was shown to be partly responsible for the biocontrol effect. In vitro tests further showed that Ths97 develops mycoparasitic activities towards F. solani Fso14, by forming infection structures such as hyphae windings and wedges, appressoria and papillae. In the second part of the study, we investigated the Major Intrinsic Proteins (MIP) superfamily in the Trichoderma genus. This multigenic family has never been investigated in a hyperparasitic fungal species. Seven MIP members are present in T. harzianum, and are classified into 3 subgroups: AQP, AQGP and XIP. Their three-dimensional structures and their putative involvement in transport of water and certain polyols have been examined. Finally, their transcription profiles were monitored in Ths97 in planta in antagonistic situations and in vitro in a parasitic situation with Fso14 and show that 4 MIP are expressed and regulated differentially during the interaction. Our work has shown that Ths97 must be considered as a biological control agent and biostimulator of plant defences, and that MIPs are involved in the trophic relationships between T. harzianum and the environment. These data contributes to the further development of T. harzianum as an efficient biocontrol agent for sustainable protection of olive trees in Tunisia and around the world.
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Maroua Ben Amira. Etude de la relation mycoparasitaire Trichoderma harzianum avec Fusarium solani chez l’Olivier ; caractérisations moléculaires et fonctionnelles des aquaporines chez Trichoderma harzianum. Génétique des plantes. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAC009⟩. ⟨tel-01843215⟩

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