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Le processus d’héroïsation de Francisco Morazán et ses usages politiques en Amérique Centrale (1842-1942)

Abstract : This dissertation focuses on the figure of Francisco Morazán, liberal caudillo of Honduran origin and president for ten years of the Federal Republic of Central America founded in 1824, few years after the independence of the region from the Spanish crown. The process of heroization and its uses are studied mainly through historical books, newspaper articles, political speeches and various "territorial marks". A comparative perspective is developed between the five states that made up the Federation: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. This investigation offers a History of memory recorded in the current of the cultural History of politics: it is not intended to give an "objective" dimension to the figure of Morazán but to identify the symbolic and mythical aspects used to rebuild his image. The analysis aims at understanding in what way the fabric of this Central American hero has supported the legitimacy in power of various governments. The links between the heroic memory and the invention of the nation are here questioned considering that regional identity has remained a frame of reference throughout the study period despite the failure of the various unionist attempts.This work begins with the death of Morazán in 1842, a key episode for his heroization, and ends with the centenary of his death. Three commemorative contexts were defined around which the dissertation has been organized. The first part (1829-1858) tackles the lifetime of the caudillo and his execution to highlight the passage from the historic person to the hero. The first steps of his official heroization occurred at a time qualified as conservative with the repatriation of his remains from Costa Rica to El Salvador and the official burial of his body in the Salvadoran capital. The second part (1880-1892) focuses on the formalization and institutionalization of the heroic cult during the first stage of the so-called liberal era, with the inauguration of the first statues in his honor at San Salvador and Tegucigalpa, the creation of the park "Morazán" in the Costa Rican capital and the celebration of the centenary of his birth that has a major impact in Guatemala. In the third and last part (1921-1942), which takes place during the second phase of the liberal period, the organization of two centenaries is examined: that of the independence of Central America and that of the death of Morazán that results in a multiplication of political uses of his figure.
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Catherine Lacaze. Le processus d’héroïsation de Francisco Morazán et ses usages politiques en Amérique Centrale (1842-1942). Histoire. Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016TOU20007⟩. ⟨tel-01843213⟩



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