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Théorie de l'indice pour les familles d'opérateurs G-transversalement elliptiques

Abstract : The index problem is to calculate the index of an elliptic operator in topological terms. This problem was solved by M. Atiyah and I. Singer in 1963 in "The index of elliptic operators on compact manifolds". Few years later, these authors have given a new proof in "The index of elliptic operators I" allowing several generalizations and applications. The first is taking into account of the action of a compact group G, in this frame they obtain an equality in the ring of the representations of G. Later they generalized this result to the framework of the families of elliptic operators parameterized by a compact space in "The index of elliptic operators IV", here equality lives in the K-theory of the space of parameter.Another important generalization is the transversely elliptic operators with respect to a group action, that is to say, elliptic in the transverse direction to the orbits of a group action on a manifold. This class of operators has been studied for the first time by M. Atiyah (and I. Singer) in "Elliptic operators and compact groups", in 1974. In this article the author defines an index class and shows that it depends only on the symbol class in K-theory. Then he shows that it verifies different axioms: free action, multiplicativity and excision. These different axioms allows to reduce the calculation of the index to an Euclidean space equipped with an action of a torus. Next, this class of operators has been studied from the point of view of bivariant K-theory by P. Julg [1982] and more recently in the context of proper action on a non-compact manifolds by G. Kasparov [2016].In this thesis, we are interested in families of G-transversely elliptic operators. We define an index class in Kasparov bivariant K-theory. We verify that it depends only on the class of the symbol of the family in K-theory. We show that our index class satisfies the expected free action, multiplicativity and excision properties in bivariant K-theory. We then show a theorem of induction and compatibility with Gysin maps. These last theorems allows to reduce the calculation of the index to the case of a trivial family for the action of a torus as in the framework of a single operator on a manifold. We then prove that we can associate to this index class a Chern character with distributional coefficients on G with values ​​in the de Rham cohomology of the parameter space when it is a manifold. To do this, we use the bivariant local cyclic homology of M. Puschnigg [2003] and a technique of M. Hilsum and G. Skandalis [1987].Before treating the general framework of families of G-transversely elliptic operators, we look at the elliptic case. We show that the expected formulas are true in this context. In the last chapter, we show the Berline-Vergne formula in the context of families of G-transversely elliptic operators. We use here the Berline-Vergne formula for a G-transversely elliptic operator and the different methods used in the previous chapters.
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Alexandre Baldare. Théorie de l'indice pour les familles d'opérateurs G-transversalement elliptiques. Géométrie différentielle [math.DG]. Université Montpellier, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MONTS005⟩. ⟨tel-01843055⟩

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