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Development of potential slow release sustainable fertilizers from natural and synthetic lamellar matrices and soluble phosphates

Abstract : The present work describes the development of slow release fertilizers from the mechanochemical activation of of natural (montmorillonite, talc, chrysotile) and synthetic (Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH) MgAl and MgFe) lamellar matrix mixtures with potassium monohydrogen phosphate. This salt is used in agriculture as a conventional fertilizer and is highly soluble in aqueous solution, which implies large losses due to leaching processes, volatilization or even fixation in the soil, limiting the efficiency of the nutrients for the plants. Due to these characteristics, there is a need to apply large quantities of these products in agriculture. Therefore, the main idea is to control the supply of both the elements coming from the soluble salt as well as the constituting elements of the lamellar matrices. Such approach could reduce costs with exacerbated fertilization, potentiating the use of the products and decreasing the solubility of the ions involved. The methodology used basically consists of the milling of the reagents varying the processing conditions. For the characterization of the samples, several techniques were used according to the nature of the compounds involved. Particularly, PXRD, SEM / EDX and spectroscopic (SSNMR, FTIR, RAMAN, EPR…) techniques proved to be highly efficient for the monitoring of the mechano-chemical reaction, and to highlight the amorphization of the precursors and/or the formation of a distinct crystalline phase. SEM/EDX showed after the mechanochemical activation the changes in particle size, the disappearance of precursor morphologies, and the formation of particles with distinct morphologies and different chemical composition. Using solid state NMR measurements significant changes in the chemical environments involved were evidenced, suggesting the formation of metastable compounds between metal cations from the lamellar matrices, phosphorus and oxygen, as well as other possible compounds as products. After the mechanochemical reaction, in the nutrient release assays, the slow release behavior was observed for all the matrices analyzed. The release rate can be influenced by the chemical composition of the starting matrices, since each matrix can produce similar and distinct products, for example, SiO2 from natural clays which is not possible in the LDH products.
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Roger Borges. Development of potential slow release sustainable fertilizers from natural and synthetic lamellar matrices and soluble phosphates. Material chemistry. Université Clermont Auvergne; Universidade federal do Paraná (Brésil), 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAC010⟩. ⟨tel-01843049⟩

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