Contribution à la compréhension des mécanismes de vieillissement hydrothermique de matériaux composites unidirectionnels polyester insaturé/fibre de lin

Abstract : A great number of plant fiber – reinforced polymer composites allowed substantial lightening of structures in various fields of application. However, the question remains about the durability of these parts in service, mainly for lack of knowledge about the aging of plant fibers, their interactions with the polymer matrix and the hydrothermal behavior of biosourced composites over time. In this work, water absorption mechanisms and kinetics by the composite material are studied in order to understand the hydric behavior during hydrothermal aging by immersion in deionized water at 23°C or 70°C. The results show that water absorption by the composite is characterized by a high water uptake and an anisotropic swelling. It also allowed the identification of the degradation mechanisms of flax fibers; the very harmful role of bark residues recalls the importance of retting and decortication on the performance of these fibers.The investigation of the behaviors of the constituents and the composite under hydrothermal aging was then undertaken with the aim to identify and quantify the influence of each on the constituent materials, as well as their synergy. It shows that the deterioration of the flax fibers is the main cause of the reduction of the mechanical properties of the composite. If immersion at 23 ° C for 70 days has little effect on the mechanical properties, raising the temperature to 70 ° C induces significant damage from 14 days of immersion. The destruction of the cell walls and the degradation of the fiber/matrix interfaces due to water deteriorate the load transfer efficiency by the fiber/matrix interface. The correlation between accelerated and natural aging showed a similarity between holding for 70 days in water at 23 ° C and exposure to natural conditions for 24 months; immersion at 70 ° C is too severe. An improvement solution would be to increase the retting of the fibers in order to further remove the pectic compounds from the middle lamella and the primary wall. The elimination of these compounds easily hydrolysable by water would claim to a better quality of the fiber / matrix interface throughout aging.
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Matthias Rouch. Contribution à la compréhension des mécanismes de vieillissement hydrothermique de matériaux composites unidirectionnels polyester insaturé/fibre de lin. Matériaux. Normandie Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018NORMC210⟩. ⟨tel-01842261⟩

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