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Les fondements neurophysiologiques de la latéralisation motrice : le paradigme des mouvements en miroir

Abstract : Mirror movements are involuntary symmetrical movements of one side of the body that mirror voluntary movements of the other side. Congenital mirror movements (CMM) is a rare genetic disorder transmitted in autosomal dominant manner, in which mirror movements are the only clinical abnormality. Two structures are involved in the physiopathology of CMM: the corpus callosum (CC) and the corticospinal tract (CST). The two main culprit genes identified so far are DCC and RAD51. While the role of DCC in commissural axons guidance during development is well known, RAD51 is involved in DNA repair, and its link with CMM was totally unexpected. In mice, we investigated the role of RAD51 and DCC in the development of the CC and CST, as well as the role of these two structures in motor lateralization. We showed that DCC controls CST midline crossing in an indirect manner. Our work clarified the role of RAD51 in neocortex development, but how RAD51 influences motor system development remains unknown. We compared a group of CMM patients with healthy volunteers to investigate the lateralization of cortical activity during movement preparation. We showed that activation of motor/premotor areas and interhemispheric interactions during movement preparation differed between the CMM patients and healthy volunteers. Transient inhibition of the supplementary motor area (SMA) in the healthy volunteers resulted in abnormal interhemispheric interactions during movement preparation, reminiscent of the situation observed in the patients. These results suggest the SMA is involved in lateralized movements preparation, potentially by modulating interhemispheric interactions via the CC.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01839462, version 1

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Quentin Welniarz. Les fondements neurophysiologiques de la latéralisation motrice : le paradigme des mouvements en miroir. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PA066235⟩. ⟨tel-01839462⟩

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