Étude et réalisation d’un lidar Raman pour la détection d’hydrogène et de vapeur d’eau dans une alvéole de stockage de colis radioactifs

Abstract : The CIGEO project, led by the ANDRA agency, aims at enabling future deep geological disposal of french nuclear waste packages. Those packages could be stored in hundred-meters long underground galleries, and may release hydrogen gas (H2), which is explosive at concentrations above 4% in the air. For safety concerns, it is important to ensure that H2 concentration remains well below the lower explosive limit. The objective of this thesis work, conducted at the ONERA agency, is to design and build a lidar which enable high-resolution (3 m) remote profiling of H2 concentration (0-4%) over hundreds of meters. Such a lidar could perform nonintrusive H2 detection and then prevent H2-related explosion risks. This lidar measures vibrational Raman scattering in the UV domain (355 – 420 nm). Its design takes into account the specific conditions expected in storage galleries. A highspeed and sensitive detection stage has been chosen, based on SiPM (Silicium Photomultiplier) technology in photon counting mode. Due to a spectral overlap between molecular hydrogen and water vapor Raman spectra, the need of a H2O measurement channel has been demonstrated. A three-channel spectral analyzer (H2, H2O and N2 used as reference) has been designed and implemented. Signal processing in real time has been developed to display H2 and H2O concentration profiles. This lidar has been tested in a reduced range scene (100 m) enabling hydrogen gas releases. Simultaneous measurements of concentration profiles of natural water vapor and hydrogen gas (0-2%) have been performed at 85 m with 1-meter and 1-minute resolution and a 600 ppm detectivity.
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Anasthase Limery. Étude et réalisation d’un lidar Raman pour la détection d’hydrogène et de vapeur d’eau dans une alvéole de stockage de colis radioactifs. Géophysique [physics.geo-ph]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLV005⟩. ⟨tel-01838254⟩

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