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Régulations fonctionnelles des lymphocytes T par les cellules souches adipocytaires : implication dans l’inflammation chronique et l’insulinorésistance du tissu adipeux du sujet obèse

Abstract : In obesity, adipose tissue is massively infiltrated by a panel of inflammatory immune cells such as IL-17-secreting Th17 lymphocytes. The mechanisms by which Th17 cells are induced are less understood. We postulated that adipose stem cells (ASC), which are known to play immunomodulatory functions in contact with immune cells, might be involved in Th17 activation. By using an in-vitro co-culture model, we demonstrated for the first time, that ASC issued from obese , but not lean AT were able to activate IL-17 secretion from Th17 cells, and IL-1 secretion from monocytes. In turn, such an interaction led to increased secretion of IL-6 from ASC. The inflammatory environment generated from this interaction was then able to inhibit adipogenesis and adipocyte insulin-sensitivity. We also showed that adipocytes harvested from obese adipose tissue were able to promote Th17 cell and monocyte activation. Finally, we demonstrated that polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 presented anti-inflammatory properties towards Th17 cells, while they had no effect on monocytes in our co-culture model (manuscript in preparation), which was related to decrease of ICAM-1 expression. In conclusion, we highlight herein a crosstalk between ASC, monocytes and Th17 cells in obese adipose tissue, which leads to a vicious circle of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01838173
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Submitted on : Friday, July 13, 2018 - 10:38:34 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, August 20, 2020 - 5:11:35 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01838173, version 1

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Marwa Chehimi. Régulations fonctionnelles des lymphocytes T par les cellules souches adipocytaires : implication dans l’inflammation chronique et l’insulinorésistance du tissu adipeux du sujet obèse. Biologie cellulaire. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE1023⟩. ⟨tel-01838173⟩

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