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Synthèse de matériaux lamellaires à base de manganèse pour la dépollution des eaux

Abstract : In marine and sediments, the conversion of combined nitrogen to dinitrogen is traditionally assumed to take place via the coupled bacterial nitrification-denitrification process or through the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). But, the low ammonium concentrations observed in the Mn-oxide rich sediments suggested the existence of an alternative pathway that might take place via a chemical process. Among manganese oxide, birnessite was found to be the most existing form in soils and sediments. It is a lamellar oxide containing both Mn(III) and Mn(IV) in its structure and characterized by its high reactivity. This work aims to highlight the nature of the reactivity of the triclinic Na-birnessite synthesized via a redox method with ammonium. This interaction was suspected, in previous studies, to involve a cationic exchange mechanism only. The first part of this manuscript is dedicated to the synthesis of a pure phase birnessite via a redox process. The Mn(VII):Mn(II) ratio of 0.33 was chosen and three methods were used consisting in a quick mixing under vigorous stirring of two of the three reagents and then on the dropwise addition of the third one. The study of numerous reaction parameters (the order of reagent mixing, the addition time of the third reagent, the aging method, the nature of the cation used and the dissolved oxygen effect) highlighted the key role played by oxygen in the formation of a pure birnessite and a mechanism of formation has been proposed. The second part focused on the interaction of Na-birnessite with ammonium. The study of numerous reaction parameters (the initial ammonium concentration, the contact time, the pH and the temperature of the medium) by monitoring both solid and liquid changes allowed us to demonstrate that birnessite is not only acting as a cationic exchanger toward NH4+. Indeed, the surface analysis performed by XPS showed that N1s spectra are characterized by the existence of two different environments: one assignable to an interlayer NH4+ and the second to a chemisorbed N-species. Structural and chemical transformations were observed on birnessite with nitrogen mass balance deficit. The monitoring of NH4+, Na+, Mn2+, NO3- and NO2- and solid changes (average oxidation state of Mn, cation exchange capacity, solid nitrogen content and symmetry evolution identified by XRD and FTIR) indicate unambiguously that NH4+ reacts chemically with the birnessite
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Submitted on : Wednesday, July 11, 2018 - 5:09:05 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01835861, version 1


Hella Boumaiza. Synthèse de matériaux lamellaires à base de manganèse pour la dépollution des eaux. Génie chimique. Université de Lorraine, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LORR0009⟩. ⟨tel-01835861⟩



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