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Approche multi-échelle pour l’étude de la réaction de N-acylation enzymatique d’acides aminés

Abstract : N-acylation of amino acids or peptides results in bioactive and/or functional molecules showing increased bioavailability, hydrophobicity and stability. Acylated amino acids have been broadly described as being a kind of surfactant with great surface chemistry properties, interesting biological activities, weak toxicity and low environmental impact. Acylation of amino acids or peptides is being performed chemically at industrial scale. It creates constraints in term of reaction selectivity, environmental safety and cost of polluted wastewater treatment. Enzymatic catalysis is an alternative to chemical acylation reaction. Several enzyme/solvent pairs have already been described in the literature. Their performance are however somewhat limited. The objective of this thesis work was thus to improve the capacity of acylation processes at different scales. At the molecular scale, a study was performed using Candida antarctica’s (CALB) lipase B. Molecular modeling was used to create a methodology coupling docking simulation and interaction calculus that would allow for a better understanding of CALB regioselectivity during lysine acylation by different fatty acids. Studies were also conducted at the reaction level, especially by searching for new aminoacylase-type of biocatalysts in Streptomyces ambofaciens raw extract. Regioselectivity and performance of these enzyme’s catalytic reactions were compared to those of CALB. Results brought into light a promising potential from S. ambofaciens’ aminoacylases in synthesizing acylated amino acids/peptides. Indeed, on top of their ability to catalyse acylation reaction in aqueous solution, these enzymes have a different regioselectivity compared to CALB’s. Regioselectivity targeting N-terminal groups is a rarely researched phenomenon allowing acylation to be performed without modifying amino acids or peptides lateral chains and hence their functionality. In the last part part of this work, studies at process scale were performed. Aminoacylase were first immobilized on mesoporous silicates and several immobilisation methods were compared. Using physisorption, a method for the immobilisation of S. ambofaciens’ aminoacylases was developed to reach a conserved specific activity during 3 cycles. Finally, intensification of acylation reaction was examined in microwave or microstructured reactors. First, an experimental set up was performed in an heated reactor using microwaves irradiation. This kind of reactor was demonstrated as being adapted to acylation reaction using a commercial immobilized form of CALB (Novozym435®) as catalyst in organic solvent. The microwave reactor was however not suited for free S. ambofaciens aminoacylase in aqueous solution. For that latter reaction, intensification had to be approached through other aspects of the process. Hydrodynamic appeared indeed as an important aspect for this reaction occurring in a biphasic medium composed of fatty acids and aqueous solution. A microstructured microfluidic reactor was hence tested. Conversion yield were increased with this system. This study demonstrated how mixing quality was an important factor for acylation reaction and could be a way to intensify the enzymatic process at larger scale
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Léna Dettori. Approche multi-échelle pour l’étude de la réaction de N-acylation enzymatique d’acides aminés. Génie des procédés. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0346⟩. ⟨tel-01835089⟩

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