Etude des modes de rotation continue d'une détonation dans une chambre annulaire de section constante ou croissante

Abstract : Our study aims at improving the understanding of how a detonation may continuously rotate. It is focused on rotation modes in an annular chamber with constant or linearly increasing normal section. The functioning principle is based on the continuous injection of fresh reactive gases so as to regenerate a reactive layer ahead of the detonation front and maintain sufficient conditions for detonation propagation. The main incentive of the work is the development of propulsive devices that use detonation as the combustion mode (Rotating Detonation Engine, RDE). We have designed and built an experimental test bench of which the main part is an annular chamber with inner diameter 50 mm length 90 mm, and thickness 5 or 10 mm. The chamber can be equipped with cylindrical or conical kernels with lengths ranging between 12 mm and 90 mm and, for the conical kernels, with the apex half-angles ranging between 0± and 14.6±. The fuel is ethylene and the oxidizer is a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen, and they are injected separately in the chamber. We have considered several nitrogen concentrations so as to vary the reactive mixture detonability. The characterizations of the detonation regimes, velocities and pressures are based upon the analyses of signals from pressure transducers and of direct light visualizations from high-speed cameras. Our experimental results detail the ignition phase, the combustion modes and their stability. We have carried out experiments with several detonabilities, mass-flow rates and kernel geometries. Our main finding is that modifying the kernel geometry, specifically decreasing the kernel length and increasing its conicity (the apex half-angle) significantly improve detonation velocities and pressures, unlike the first two parameters that have much lesser influences, in our conditions. We have conducted a numerical analysis that suggests that dilution and heating of the fresh gases by detonation products explain the measured deficits of pressure and velocity. We have presented a calculation of thermodynamic efficiency which, contrary to former modeling includes a more realistic structure of rotating detonation.We have proposed a calculation of detonation-front height for the rotation modes and the chamber geometries in this work. Our study thus demonstrates the interest in further research work on inner geometry of rotating-detonation chambers and on phenomena that may be responsible for efficiency losses.
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Sylvain Hansmetzger. Etude des modes de rotation continue d'une détonation dans une chambre annulaire de section constante ou croissante. Autre. ISAE-ENSMA Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et d'Aérotechique - Poitiers, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018ESMA0002⟩. ⟨tel-01834965⟩

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