Étude des rapports entre stéréotomie et résistance des voûtes clavées

Abstract : This work aims at a better understanding of the influence of stereotomy on the stability of stone-cut archs and vaults in general, and flat archs and flat vaults in particular. A study of the history and typology of flat archs and flat vaults, through the consideration of existing examples and treaties of architecture or stereotomy from 1500 to 1800, is a preambule to the mechanical study of these constructions. Flat archs with X-joints, flat archs en fausse-coupe, and Abeille's flat vaults are studied in detail because of their specific stereotomy. Geometric rules used to determine joint orientation, by architects on the one hand, and by stone masons on the other hand, emerge from this work. An extension of the force network method is presented, in order to take into account the vaults' stonework, to find new equilibrium solutions by refining networks, and to comply rigourously with the theory of yield calculus. Calculus strategies for the search of limit loads, whose determination is essential for the technique, are given. Mechanical studies are conducted on cylindrical archs and hemispherical domes, flat archs and flat vaults, and helicoidal vaults. They show the precision of the geometric safety factor estimate, the influence of stone cutting on flat archs and vaults, and the possibilities and limits of using the force networks method to study stone-cut vaults
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Mathias Fantin. Étude des rapports entre stéréotomie et résistance des voûtes clavées. Art et histoire de l'art. Université Paris-Est, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC1077⟩. ⟨tel-01834617⟩

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