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Mouillabilité et miscibilité des bitumes : application au recyclage

Abstract : In the road industry, the main challenge is to produce warm-mix asphalt mixtures while incorporating high rates of reclaimed asphalt, which come from the deconstruction of old pavement. However, the combination of recycling and the reduction of mix manufacture temperatures (warm mixes) raises technical issues about performance and durability of final pavement materials. In order to better predict final properties of these recycled materials, it is also necessary to understand phenomena occurring during the manufacture of recycled asphalt mixtures in the plant. The objectives of the PhD thesis are to understand and identify factors impacting wetting, remobilization and miscibility phenomena existing between organic and inorganic constituents of the bituminous mixture happening during the manufacturing step. The selected experimental approach consists in studying materials interactions according to a physicochemical approach at interfaces and interphases.Concerning wetting mechanisms at the “bitumen/aggregate” interface, some indicators were selected to assess wetting evolutions on a polished mineral slide. The binder ageing influence has also been studied. The bitumen viscosity and asphaltene content influence the wetting quality as well as the surface composition of the mineral substrate. Results have shown that “bitumen/aggregate” wetting evolutions were governed by a model associated to polished, porous and chemically heterogeneous surfaces.Remobilization of the aged binder (at a lower temperature) by the virgin one (heated at 160°C) has been studied at the interface and at the interphase of “aged binder/virgin binder “samples. At the bituminous interface, the spreading time is linearly influenced by the aged binder viscosity. At the bituminous interphase, bituminous sample analysis has shown that a reduction in the binders temperature difference leads to a better blend. Methodologies have been developed to monitor the aged binder migration using techniques such as X-ray micro fluorescence, infrared microscopy in ATR mode and in imaging ATR mode. Infrared microscopy in imaging ATR mode is a suitable technique to monitor the aged binder migration coupled to the carbonyl function marker resulting from the bitumen oxidation and ageing. Results have identified influent parameters corresponding to the aged binder viscosity and chemical composition, as well as the beneficial effect of a rejuvenator on remobilization. The effect of mechanical agitation energy also improves the binders blend. Concerning X-ray micro fluorescence results, binders remobilization has been assessed by the migration of metals which are involved in the bitumen internal composition. Some hypotheses have been proposed to explain observed migration differences of studied markers.Finally, all customized binder-scale methodologies have been applied to the study of road products incorporating virgin aggregates and reclaimed asphalt pavement. Results have shown similarities between observed trends at the microscopic and macroscopic scales. The hot manufacturing process promotes remobilization while the increase in the reclaimed asphalt rate limits it. The increase in the reclaimed asphalt rate also reduces the asphalt mixture homogeneity degree which has been evaluated through the carbonyl function spatial distribution, obtained by a chemical mappings statistical treatment.
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Sabine Vassaux. Mouillabilité et miscibilité des bitumes : application au recyclage. Matériaux. Université Montpellier, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017MONTS008⟩. ⟨tel-01834590v2⟩

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