Les Hautes Études Industrielles et Commerciales de Tianjin (Tianjin Gongshang xueyuan 天津⼯工商学院), 1923-1951 : un exemple de l'action éducative des Jésuites en Chine

Abstract : The Tianjin «Hautes Etudes Industrielles et Commerciales» Institute was founded in Tianjin, China by the Jesuits in 1921. While a surprising proliferation of secondary schools and colleges, either national, English or American (being protestant indeed) were expected, French authorities and the catholic Church thought that this superior technical school was in fact an answer to the needs of the industrial development of the region (North China). The Jesuits from the Mission of Champagne were the ones that became in charge of this new school and remained at its head until it closed. The French Jesuits understood that the Chinese elite, more sensitive to Western knowledge than to the Christian dogma, was the key to access to the people. They founded two institutions of higher education in China : the Aurora University (震旦学院 Zhendan Xueyuan) in 1903 by Father Joseph Ma Xiangbo (1840-1939) in Zikawei, near Shanghai and the « Institut des Hautes Études Industrielles et Commerciales » in Tianjin, our present study. The « Institut des Hautes Études Industrielles et Commerciales » of Tianjin was fonded in 1921, on the name of « Institut du Sacré-Cœur », in the Zhili (直隶) province, present Hebei. First called Gong Shang College, it will change name to Jingu daxue (津沽大学), Tsinkou University. On September 15th 1923, after being admitted at an entrance exam, the first 35 pupils started school at the Institute which functioned in its original form until the late1940’s. In 1949, only a few days after Tianjin was freed, which happened to be the greatest liberation campaign led by the Communists, Father Bonningue (1908 - 1997), who was the emblematic figure of the last hours in the House, took the Tianjin «Hautes Études» Institute into control. It was under his 2-year rectorship that the school turned soviet little by little, until it became totally ruled by the communist administration and changed into a state school in the end. The Jesuits, among whom some were jailed and tortured, were expelled from China from 1952 onwards. What have the Jesuits from Tianjin brought to the actual Chinese upperclass society? What has their moral and religious influence been on the young pupils who had been taught? What is the Jesuit distinguishing feature in the creation and support of the school which have gone through difficult times in China.
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Corinne Dehoux-Dutilleux. Les Hautes Études Industrielles et Commerciales de Tianjin (Tianjin Gongshang xueyuan 天津⼯工商学院), 1923-1951 : un exemple de l'action éducative des Jésuites en Chine. Histoire. Université Michel de Montaigne - Bordeaux III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BOR30011⟩. ⟨tel-01834584⟩

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