Spectro Imagerie terahertz de tissues biologiques : application à la détection de cancers du sein

Abstract : The work of this thesis consists in developing terahertz spectroscopy and imaging tools for medical applications. The goal is to determine the potential and effectiveness of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging in the detection of cancer regions and the distinction between diseased and healthy tissue for breast cancer in women. Terahertz spectroimaging is a non-contact, non-ionizing technique for rapid results compared to standard clinical analysis. Experimental studies are divided into two main sections:Section IThis part focuses on THz spectroscopy using THz radiation. The mastery of this technique makes it possible to work in reflection or transmission mode with frequencies in the terahertz bandwidth. Several types of materials have been used as ghosts for the calibration of the experiment: solids (silica, teflon, sapphire and glass), liquids (methanol, water and alcohol) and biological tissues (cancer, fiber and fat), as well as a mixture (water-methanol). The refractive indices, the absorption coefficients and the complex dielectric functions were first measured and extracted and then fitted with a Debye model. Biological tissues have appeared heterogeneous in thickness and with surfaces that may be irregular, making it difficult to extract accurate information because of induced artifacts. The signals have been processed according to a rigorous protocol: The measurements are carried out on a perfectly characterised substratet in transmission to reduce the uncertainties on the phase during the measurements in reflection. The THz signals reflected at the interfaces between the air / sample, air / window, water / window and window / window are used as a basic signal to estimate and improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the spectroscopy measurements. The advantage of this method is its accuracy, simplicity and ease of application for a reflection system with an angle of incidence. Measurement of refractive indices and absorption coefficients of samples with tumor and healthy tissue revealed that the tumor regions showed significant differences from normal tissue during terahertz tissue-radiation interaction.Section II:The second part of this study focuses on THz imaging for breast cancer detection in both transmission and reflection modes. Several types of samples have been studied. Sections used included paraffin-embedded tissue, fresh tissues removed from the OR, formalin-fixed, and blocks. For this the spectrometer has been moved to the hospital. More than 50 samples were inspected. Three image processing methods were used: cutting, automation and manual image sorting. In addition, time domain and frequency domain images were analyzed to describe and identify the different regions of mammary tissue studied and to determine the contrast between healthy tissue and diseased tissue. The amount of differential water present in diseased tissue can be one of the sources of contrast. In fact, the cancerous tissue has a higher water content than that of normal fibers or adipose tissue, which makes it possible to discriminate the cancerous, fibrous and fatty regions on the THz images.
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Amel Al-Ibadi. Spectro Imagerie terahertz de tissues biologiques : application à la détection de cancers du sein. Micro et nanotechnologies/Microélectronique. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0059⟩. ⟨tel-01834560v2⟩

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