S. S. Asraf, P. Gunasekaran, A. Gosling, G. W. Stevens, A. R. Barber et al., 20] Y. M. Han?guk Sano?p Misaengmul Hakhoe., J. C. (Ildong P. C. L. . S, pp.307-318, 1950.

H. C. Choi, U. S. Korea, R. D. Korea, G. E. Of, . S. Yang et al., Biokhimiia J. Biochem. J. Food Biochem. Colloids Surf. B. Biointerfaces Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol, vol.41, issue.46, pp.593-596, 1975.

C. Picard, J. Fioramonti, A. Francois, T. Robinson, F. Neant et al., Jelen, Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. Nutr. Res. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. Enzyme Microb. Technol. Enzyme Microb. Technol. Biotechnol. Bioeng. Biochem. Eng. J. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. Phytochemistry J. Plant Physiol J. Agric. Food Chem. Plant Physiol Plant Physiol Z. M. Ali, Plant Physiol. Biochem. Plant Physiol. J. Biol. Chem. Food Chem. J. Agric. Food Chem. Bioresour. Technol Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun, vol.22, issue.316, pp.495-512, 1988.

S. R. Tello-solís, J. Jiménez-guzmán, C. Sarabia-leos, L. Gómez-ruíz, A. E. Cruz-guerrero et al., Handbook of Dairy Foods and Nutrition, Haase, P. Jelen, pp.10200-10204, 1997.

?. C. Hsu, ?. , S. L. Lee, ?. C. Chou, *. K. Wallenfels et al., [71] H. A. Gulec, Colloids and Surfaces B-Biointerfaces 2013. [72] A. M. Klibanov. [73] P. V. Iyer, L. Ananthanarayan, Process Biochem CEUR Workshop Proc. 2014, 1225, pp.239-298, 1962.

J. M. Garcia, R. Guisán, J. Fernandez-lafuente, C. Chromatogr-pessela, A. Mateo et al., Álvarez-Cao, J.-J. Escuder-Rodríguez, M.-I. González-Siso, M. E. Cerdán, M. Becerra, Sci, pp.93-98, 1991.

M. D. Serio, C. Maturo, E. De-alteriis, P. Parascandola, R. Tesser et al., Catal. Today, pp.79-80, 2003.

J. Pedroche, M. Del-mar-yust, C. Mateo, R. Fernández-lafuente, J. Girón-calle et al., Effect of the support and experimental conditions in the intensity of the multipoint covalent attachment of proteins on glyoxyl-agarose supports: Correlation between enzyme???support linkages and thermal stability, Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol.40, issue.5, pp.1160-1166, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2006.08.023

M. J. Hernaiz and D. H. Crout, Immobilization/stabilization on Eupergit C of the ??-galactosidase from B. circulans and an ??-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae, Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol.27, issue.1-2, pp.26-32, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0141-0229(00)00150-2

P. Torres and F. Batista-viera, Molecules, vol.2017, issue.22, p.284

M. M. , D. Maio, P. L. Martelli, R. Casadio, B. Moustafa et al., J Mol Catal B-Enzym, vol.16, pp.175-189, 2001.

A. De-maio, M. M. El-masry, Z. H. Abd-el-latif, M. Portaccio, U. Bencivenga et al., Influence of the immobilisation process on the activity of ??-galactosidase bound to nylon membranes grafted with glycidyl methacrylate, Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic, vol.16, issue.3-4, pp.191-204, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S1381-1177(01)00063-7

A. De-maio, M. M. El-masry, P. De-luca, V. Grano, S. Rossi et al., , pp.253-265, 2003.

N. Albayrak and S. Yang, Production of galacto-oligosaccharides from lactose byAspergillus oryzae ?-galactosidase immobilized on cotton cloth, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol.8, issue.4, pp.8-19, 2002.
DOI : 10.1021/bk-2001-0776.ch009

P. Nakkharat and H. Dietmar, Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol, pp.98-100, 2002.

D. F. Neri, V. M. Balcão, M. G. Carneiro-da-cunha, L. B. Carvalho-jr, and J. A. Teixeira, Immobilization of ??-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis onto a polysiloxane???polyvinyl alcohol magnetic (mPOS???PVA) composite for lactose hydrolysis, Catalysis Communications, vol.9, issue.14, pp.2334-2339, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.catcom.2008.05.022

D. F. Neri, V. M. Balcão, R. S. Costa, I. C. Rocha, E. M. Ferreira et al., Galacto-oligosaccharides production during lactose hydrolysis by free Aspergillus oryzae ??-galactosidase and immobilized on magnetic polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol, Food Chemistry, vol.115, issue.1, pp.92-99, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.11.068

M. M. Elnashar and M. A. Yassin, Lactose Hydrolysis by ??-Galactosidase Covalently Immobilized to Thermally Stable Biopolymers, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol.81, issue.2, pp.426-437, 2009.
DOI : 10.1177/000456326900600108

Q. Z. Zhou, X. Dong-chen, and J. F. Eng, , pp.69-74, 2001.

M. Portaccio, S. Stellato, S. Rossi, U. Bencivenga, M. S. Mohy-eldin et al., Galactose competitive inhibition of ??-galactosidase (Aspergillus oryzae) immobilized on chitosan and nylon supports, Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol.23, issue.1-2, pp.101-106, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0141-0229(98)00018-0

R. Gaur, H. Pant, R. Jain, S. K. Khare, and F. Chem, , pp.426-430, 2006.

S. A. Ansari, Q. Husain, and F. Bioprod, , pp.351-359

J. M. Goddard, J. N. Talbert, and J. H. Hotchkiss, J. Food Sci, vol.72, pp.1-6, 2007.

Z. Grosová, M. Rosenberg, and M. Rebro?, Perspectives and applications of immobilised β-galactosidase in food industry ??? a review, Czech Journal of Food Sciences, vol.26, issue.No. 1, pp.1-14, 2008.
DOI : 10.17221/1134-CJFS

K. Kashima and I. Masanao, Adv. Desalin, pp.3-36, 2012.

E. J. Mammarella and A. C. Rubiolo, Study of the deactivation of ??-galactosidase entrapped in alginate-carrageenan gels, Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic, vol.34, issue.1-6, pp.7-13, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.molcatb.2005.04.007

E. J. Mammarella, , p.142, 2001.

A. Tanriseven, ?. Do?an, and P. Biochem, , pp.27-30, 2002.

E. Taqieddin and M. Amiji, Enzyme immobilization in novel alginate???chitosan core-shell microcapsules, Biomaterials, vol.25, issue.10, pp.1937-1945, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2003.08.034

L. Zhang, A. Otte, M. Xiang, D. Liu, and R. , , pp.17180-17193, 2015.

K. Batsalova, K. Kunchev, Y. Popova, A. Kozhukharova, and N. Kirova, , pp.227-230, 1987.

Z. Grosová, M. Rosenberg, M. Rebro?, M. ?ipocz, and B. Sedlá?ková, Entrapment of ??-galactosidase in polyvinylalcohol hydrogel, Biotechnology Letters, vol.86, issue.4, pp.763-767, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/s10529-007-9606-0

C. K. Kim, H. S. Chung, M. K. Lee, L. N. Choi, and M. H. Kim, Development of dried liposomes containing ??-galactosidase for the digestion of lactose in milk, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol.183, issue.2, pp.185-193, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-5173(99)00115-5

J. M. Rodriguez-nogales and A. Delgadillo, Stability and catalytic kinetics of microencapsulated ??-galactosidase in liposomes prepared by the dehydration???rehydration method, Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic, vol.33, issue.1-2, pp.15-21, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.molcatb.2005.01.003

H. Li, S. Li, P. Tian, Z. Wu, and Z. Li, Molecules, vol.2017, issue.22

T. Coradin and J. Livage, Comptes Rendus Chim, pp.147-152, 2003.

Z. Zhang, R. Zhang, L. Chen, and D. J. Mcclements, Food Chem, pp.69-75, 0200.

Z. Wu, Z. Wang, B. Guan, X. Wang, Y. Zhang et al., Improving the properties of ??-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae via encapsulation in aggregated silica nanoparticles, New Journal of Chemistry, vol.24, issue.11, p.3793, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bios.2008.06.037

L. Domingues, N. Lima, and J. A. Teixeira, Aspergillus niger ??-galactosidase production by yeast in a continuous high cell density reactor, Process Biochemistry, vol.40, issue.3-4, pp.1151-1154, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.procbio.2004.04.016

M. Ladero, A. Santos, and F. García-ochoa, Kinetic modeling of lactose hydrolysis with an immobilized ??-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces fragilis, Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol.27, issue.8, pp.583-592, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0141-0229(00)00244-1

J. Szczodrak, Acta Biotechnol, vol.10, pp.631-637, 2000.

R. Rech and M. A. Ayub, Simplified feeding strategies for fed-batch cultivation of Kluyveromyces marxianus in cheese whey, Process Biochemistry, vol.42, issue.5, pp.873-877, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.procbio.2007.01.018

S. Chockchaisawasdee, V. I. Athanasopoulos, K. Niranjan, and R. A. , Synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharide from lactose using ?-galactosidase fromKluyveromyces lactis: Studies on batch and continuous UF membrane-fitted bioreactors, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol.81, issue.4, pp.434-443, 2005.
DOI : 10.1021/bk-2003-0849.ch002

R. R. Mahoney and F. Chem, , pp.147-154, 1998.

A. Axelsson and G. Zacchi, Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol, pp.24-25, 1990.

G. Matioli, F. F. De-moraes, G. M. Zanin, and A. Sci, , pp.7-12, 2003.

X. Li, Q. Z. Zhou, and X. D. Chen, Pilot-scale lactose hydrolysis using ??-galactosidase immobilized on cotton fabric, Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, vol.46, issue.5, pp.497-500, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cep.2006.02.011

S. Novalin, W. Neuhaus, and K. D. Kulbe, A new innovative process to produce lactose-reduced skim milk, Journal of Biotechnology, vol.119, issue.2, pp.212-218, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2005.03.018

I. Roy and M. N. Gupta, Lactose hydrolysis by Lactozym??? immobilized on cellulose beads in batch and fluidized bed modes, Process Biochemistry, vol.39, issue.3, pp.325-332, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0032-9592(03)00086-4

A. R. Özdural, D. Tanyolaç, I. H. Boyaci, M. Mutlu, and C. Webb, Determination of apparent kinetic parameters for competitive product inhibition in packed-bed immobilized enzyme reactors, Biochemical Engineering Journal, vol.14, issue.1, pp.27-36, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1369-703X(02)00099-2

C. R. Carrara, E. J. Mammarella, and A. C. Rubiolo, Prediction of the fixed-bed reactor behaviour using dispersion and plug-flow models with different kinetics for immobilised enzyme, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol.92, issue.1-3, pp.123-129, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1385-8947(02)00129-8

E. Jurado, F. Camacho, G. Luzón, and J. M. Vicaria, Kinetic and enzymatic adsorption model in a recirculation hollow-fibre bioreactor, Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, vol.499, issue.2???3, pp.27-36, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/s004499900187

G. M. Rios, M. P. Belleville, D. Paolucci, and J. Sanchez, Progress in enzymatic membrane reactors ??? a review, Journal of Membrane Science, vol.242, issue.1-2, pp.189-196, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.memsci.2003.06.004

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01731498

A. N. Genari, F. V. Passos, and F. M. Passos, Configuration of a Bioreactor for Milk Lactose Hydrolysis, Journal of Dairy Science, vol.86, issue.9, pp.2783-2789, 2003.
DOI : 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73875-2

N. Vasileva, Y. Ivanov, S. Damyanova, I. Kostova, and T. Godjevargova, Hydrolysis of whey lactose by immobilized ??-galactosidase in a bioreactor with a spirally wound membrane, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol.82, pp.339-346, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2015.11.025

S. Curcio, V. Calabro, and G. Iorio, A theoretical and experimental analysis of a membrane bioreactor performance in recycle configuration, Journal of Membrane Science, vol.273, issue.1-2, pp.129-142, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.memsci.2005.10.006

N. Diano, V. Grano, S. Rossi, U. Bencivenga, M. Portaccio et al., Hollow-Fiber Enzyme Reactor Operating under Nonisothermal Conditions, Biotechnology Progress, vol.16, issue.2, pp.457-466, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S1381-1177(01)00063-7

D. G. Hatzinikolaou, E. Katsifas, D. Mamma, A. D. Karagouni, P. Christakopoulos et al., Modeling of the simultaneous hydrolysis???ultrafiltration of whey permeate by a thermostable ??-galactosidase from Aspergillus niger, Biochemical Engineering Journal, vol.24, issue.2, pp.161-172, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bej.2005.02.011

P. S. Panesar, S. Kumari, and R. Panesar, Enzyme Res, pp.1-16, 2010.

S. Rejikumar and S. Devi, Int. J. Food Sci. Technol, vol.36, pp.91-98, 2001.

G. Bayramoglu, Y. Tunali, and M. Y. Arica, Immobilization of ??-galactosidase onto magnetic poly(GMA???MMA) beads for hydrolysis of lactose in bed reactor, Catalysis Communications, vol.8, issue.7, pp.1094-1101, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.catcom.2006.10.029

N. Vasileva, Y. Ivanov, S. Damyanova, I. Kostova, and T. Godjevargova, Hydrolysis of whey lactose by immobilized ??-galactosidase in a bioreactor with a spirally wound membrane, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol.82, pp.339-346, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2015.11.025

]. D. Napierska, L. C. Thomassen, D. Lison, J. Martens, P. H. Hoet et al., Kuper, Intravenous to Oral Therapy Conversion, Martin, Met. Ions Life Sci, pp.451-473, 1709.

C. F. Meunier, P. Dandoy, B. L. Su, H. Barthel, L. Rosch et al., Battery Fumed silica, Resin Fumed silica, Silicone Rubber Fumed silica-Minmetals East Industial, J. Colloid Interface Sci M. Stintz, B. Wessely, Chem. Eng. Technol. J. Colloid Interface Sci, vol.3423133, issue.26, pp.211-224, 1968.

T. Andreani, C. P. Kiill, A. L. De-souzad, J. F. Fangueiro, L. Fernandes et al., Chemie -Int, Martínez-Máñez, J. M. Barat, Microporous Mesoporous Mater, pp.916-923, 1992.

A. E. Palmqvist, S. H. Tolbert, N. Mater, and R. K. Iler, Synthesis of ordered mesoporous materials using surfactant liquid crystals or micellar solutions, Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, vol.8, issue.2, pp.145-155, 1980.
DOI : 10.1016/S1359-0294(03)00020-7

Y. Wan, D. Shi, C. Zhao, H. Commun, C. Lin et al., 77] R. Wetherbee, Sci. Compass, pp.897-926, 1204.

M. Kim, J. Kim, J. Lee, H. Jia, H. Bin-na et al., 97] C. H. Tsai, J. L. Vivero-Escoto, I. I. Slowing, I. J. Fang, B. G. Trewyn, V. S. Y. Lin, pp.210-2018, 1375.

M. Popova, A. Szegedi, V. Mavrodinova, N. Novak-tu?ar, J. Mihály et al., J. Solid State Chem. Iran. J. Biotechnol, vol.2014, issue.11, pp.37-42, 2013.

É. Pérez-esteve, M. Ruiz-rico, A. Fuentes, M. D. Marcos, F. Sancenón et al., Enrichment of stirred yogurts with folic acid encapsulated in pH-responsive mesoporous silica particles: Bioaccessibility modulation and physico-chemical characterization, LWT - Food Science and Technology, vol.72, pp.351-360, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.lwt.2016.04.061

N. W. Clifford, K. S. Iyer, and C. L. Raston, Encapsulation and controlled release of nutraceuticals using mesoporous silica capsules, J. Mater. Chem., vol.57, issue.3, pp.162-165, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/S0167-577X(03)00172-1

N. Gargiulo, I. Attianese, G. G. Buonocore, D. Caputo, M. Lavorgna et al., ??-Tocopherol release from active polymer films loaded with functionalized SBA-15 mesoporous silica, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, vol.167, pp.10-15, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.micromeso.2012.07.037

G. Berlier, L. Gastaldi, E. Ugazio, I. Miletto, P. Iliade et al., Stabilization of quercetin flavonoid in MCM-41 mesoporous silica: positive effect of surface functionalization, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol.393, pp.109-118, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jcis.2012.10.073

L. Heirlings, I. Siró, F. Devlieghere, E. Van-bavel, P. Cool et al., -tocopherol into 95% ethanol from active packaging, Food Additives and Contaminants, vol.15, issue.11, pp.1125-1161, 2004.
DOI : 10.1126/science.279.5350.548

C. Acosta, E. Pérez-esteve, C. A. Fuenmayor, S. Benedetti, M. S. Cosio et al., Polymer Composites Containing Gated Mesoporous Materials for On-Command Controlled Release, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol.6, issue.9, pp.6453-6460, 2014.
DOI : 10.1021/am405939y

P. L. Abbaraju, A. Kumar-meka, S. Jambhrunkar, J. Zhang, C. Xu et al., Floating tablets from mesoporous silica nanoparticles, J. Mater. Chem. B, vol.460, issue.47, pp.8298-8302, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2013.10.045

S. K. Jain, A. M. Awasthi, N. K. Jain, and G. P. , Calcium silicate based microspheres of repaglinide for gastroretentive floating drug delivery: Preparation and in vitro characterization, Journal of Controlled Release, vol.107, issue.2, pp.300-309, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jconrel.2005.06.007

I. S. Carino, L. Pasqua, F. Testa, R. Aiello, F. Puoci et al., , pp.491-496, 2007.

G. L. Amidon, H. Lennernäs, V. P. Shah, and J. , Crison, Pharm. Res. An Off. J. Am. Assoc. Pharm. Sci, vol.12, pp.413-420, 1995.

A. Tan, S. Simovic, A. K. Davey, T. Rades, B. J. Boyd et al., Silica Nanoparticles To Control the Lipase-Mediated Digestion of Lipid-Based Oral Delivery Systems, Molecular Pharmaceutics, vol.7, issue.2, pp.522-554, 2010.
DOI : 10.1021/mp9002442

A. Hill, S. Geißler, M. Weigandt, and K. Mäder, Controlled delivery of nanosuspensions from osmotic pumps: Zero order and non-zero order kinetics, Journal of Controlled Release, vol.158, issue.3, pp.403-412, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jconrel.2011.12.005

Y. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Bai, and T. Jiang, , 2012.

S. Sambaraj, D. Ammula, and V. Nagabandi, Furosemide Loaded Silica-Lipid Hybrid Microparticles: Formulation Development, in vitro and ex vivo Evaluation, Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol.5, issue.3, pp.403-409, 2015.
DOI : 10.15171/apb.2015.055

J. M. Kisler, A. Dähler, G. W. Stevens, and A. J. Connor, Microporous Mesoporous Mater, pp.44-45, 2001.

G. Chandrasekar, A. Vinu, V. Murugesean, and M. Hartmann, , pp.829-833, 2005.

V. V. Cotea, C. E. Luchian, N. Bilba, and M. Niculaua, Mesoporous silica SBA-15, a new adsorbent for bioactive polyphenols from red wine, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.732, pp.180-185, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.aca.2011.10.019

S. Sapino, E. Ugazio, L. Gastaldi, I. Miletto, G. Berlier et al., Mesoporous silica as topical nanocarriers for quercetin: characterization and in vitro studies, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol.89, pp.116-125, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ejpb.2014.11.022

S. Y. Park, M. Barton, and P. Pendleton, Controlled release of allyl isothiocyanate for bacteria growth management, Food Control, vol.23, issue.2, pp.478-484, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.08.017

P. Urban, J. Valle-delgado, E. Moles, J. Marques, C. Diez et al., Nanotools for the Delivery of Antimicrobial Peptides, Current Drug Targets, vol.13, issue.9, pp.1158-1172, 2012.
DOI : 10.2174/138945012802002302

I. Izquierdo-barba, M. Vallet-regí, N. Kupferschmidt, O. Terasaki, A. Schmidtchen et al., Incorporation of antimicrobial compounds in mesoporous silica film monolith, Biomaterials, vol.30, issue.29, pp.5729-5736, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.07.003

F. Liu, P. Yuan, J. J. Wan, K. Qian, G. F. Wei et al., Periodic Mesoporous Organosilicas with Controlled Pore Symmetries for Peptides Enrichment, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol.11, issue.6, pp.5215-5222, 2011.
DOI : 10.1166/jnn.2011.4127

Z. Luo, Y. Deng, R. Zhang, M. Wang, Y. Bai et al., Peptide-laden mesoporous silica nanoparticles with promoted bioactivity and osteo-differentiation ability for bone tissue engineering, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol.131, pp.73-82, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2015.04.043

M. R. Rico, Use of Silica Supports for Enhancing the Stability of Folates and Developing Antimicrobial Agents

F. Balas, M. Manzano, P. Horcajada, and M. Vallet-regi, Confinement and Controlled Release of Bisphosphonates on Ordered Mesoporous Silica-Based Materials, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.128, issue.25, pp.8116-8117, 2006.
DOI : 10.1021/ja062286z

C. A. Aerts, E. Verraedt, A. Depla, L. Follens, L. Froyen et al., Potential of amorphous microporous silica for ibuprofen controlled release, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol.397, issue.1-2, pp.84-91, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2010.06.053

P. Joyce, A. Tan, C. P. Whitby, and C. A. Prestidge, , pp.2779-2788, 2014.

Q. He and J. Shi, Mesoporous silica nanoparticle based nano drug delivery systems: synthesis, controlled drug release and delivery, pharmacokinetics and biocompatibility, Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol.18, issue.16, p.5845, 2011.
DOI : 10.1002/adfm.200701317

S. Y. Park, M. Barton, and P. Pendleton, , pp.256-261, 2011.

S. Y. Park and P. Pendleton, Powder Technol, vol.2012, issue.223, pp.77-82

M. W. Pettit, P. D. Dyer, J. C. Mitchell, P. C. Griffiths, B. Alexander et al., Construction and physiochemical characterisation of a multi-composite, potential oral vaccine delivery system (VDS), International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol.468, issue.1-2, pp.264-271, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.03.046

L. Sun, X. Zhang, Z. Wu, C. Zheng, and C. Li, Polym. Chem, vol.5, 1999.

L. Sun, X. Zhang, C. Zheng, Z. Wu, and C. Li, A pH Gated, Glucose-Sensitive Nanoparticle Based on Worm-Like Mesoporous Silica for Controlled Insulin Release, The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol.117, issue.14, pp.3852-3860, 2013.
DOI : 10.1021/jp400442x

Z. Zou, D. He, L. Cai, X. He, K. Wang et al., Alizarin Complexone Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: A Smart System Integrating Glucose-Responsive Double-Drugs Release and Real-Time Monitoring Capabilities, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol.8, issue.13, pp.8358-8366, 2016.
DOI : 10.1021/acsami.5b12576

Y. You, K. K. Kalebaila, S. L. Brock, and D. Oupicky, Chem. Mater, pp.3354-3359, 2008.

Q. N. Lin, Q. Huang, C. Y. Li, C. Y. Bao, Z. Z. Liu et al., Anticancer Drug Release from a Mesoporous Silica Based Nanophotocage Regulated by Either a One- or Two-Photon Process, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.132, issue.31, pp.10645-10647, 2010.
DOI : 10.1021/ja103415t

S. Giri, B. G. Trewyn, M. P. Stellmaker, and V. S. Lin, Stimuli-Responsive Controlled-Release Delivery System Based on Mesoporous Silica Nanorods Capped with Magnetic Nanoparticles, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol.173, issue.45, pp.5038-5044, 2005.
DOI : 10.1042/bj1730723

W. Qu, Y. Li, L. Hovgaard, S. Li, W. Dai et al., Int. J. Nanomedicine, vol.7, pp.4983-4994, 2012.

A. Bernardos, E. Aznar, M. D. Marcos, R. Martínez-máñez, F. Sancenón et al., Chemie -Int, pp.5884-5887, 2009.

A. Agostini, L. Mondragon, L. Pascual, E. Aznar, C. Coll et al., Design of Enzyme-Mediated Controlled Release Systems Based on Silica Mesoporous Supports Capped with Ester-Glycol Groups, Langmuir, vol.28, issue.41, pp.14766-14776, 2012.
DOI : 10.1021/la303161e

A. Schlossbauer, J. Kecht, T. Bein, and A. , Chemie -Int, pp.3092-3095, 2009.

C. Coll, L. Mondragón, R. Martínez-máñez, F. Sancenón, M. D. Marcos et al., , pp.2138-2140, 2011.

Y. Zhu, W. Meng, N. Hanagata, and . Dalt, , 2011.

G. Zhang, M. Yang, D. Cai, K. Zheng, X. Zhang et al., Z. Wu, Appl. Mater. Interfaces, vol.2014, pp.8042-8047

C. Contado, L. Ravani, and M. Passarella, Size characterization by Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation of silica particles used as food additives, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.788, pp.183-192, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.aca.2013.05.056

J. Athinarayanan, V. S. Periasamy, M. A. Alsaif, A. A. Al-warthan, and A. A. Alshatwi, Presence of nanosilica (E551) in commercial food products: TNF-mediated oxidative stress and altered cell cycle progression in human lung fibroblast cells, Cell Biology and Toxicology, vol.7, issue.2, pp.89-100, 2014.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2105-7-85

R. Jugdaohsingh, S. H. Anderson, K. L. Tucker, H. Elliott, D. P. Kiel et al., Dietary silicon intake and absorption, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol.7, issue.5, pp.887-893, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/PL00004148

Q. He, Z. Zhang, Y. Gao, J. Shi, and Y. Li, , pp.2722-2729, 2009.

C. Fu, T. Liu, L. Li, H. Liu, D. Chen et al., Biomaterials, vol.2013, issue.34, pp.2565-75

J. A. Lee, M. K. Kim, H. J. Paek, Y. R. Kim, M. K. Kim et al., Int. J. Nanomedicine, vol.2014, issue.9, pp.251-260

Z. Tao, M. P. Morrow, T. Asefa, K. K. Sharma, C. Duncan et al., , 2008.

F. Tang, L. Li, and D. Chen, Adv. Mater, vol.2012, issue.24, pp.1504-1534

M. M. Van-schooneveld, E. Vucic, R. Koole, Y. Zhou, J. Stocks et al., Improved Biocompatibility and Pharmacokinetics of Silica Nanoparticles by Means of a Lipid Coating: A Multimodality Investigation, Nano Letters, vol.8, issue.8, pp.2517-2525, 2008.
DOI : 10.1021/nl801596a

C. F. Chau, S. H. Wu, and G. C. Yen, The development of regulations for food nanotechnology, Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol.18, issue.5, pp.269-280, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tifs.2007.01.007

E. Pérez-esteve, A. Bernardos, R. Martínez-máñez, J. M. Barat, and R. Pat, Food. Nutr. Agric, vol.5, pp.35-43, 2013.

C. Lee, L. Lo, C. Mou, and C. Yang, Synthesis and Characterization of Positive-Charge Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Oral Drug Delivery of an Anti-Inflammatory Drug, Advanced Functional Materials, vol.17, issue.20, pp.3283-3292, 2008.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2672.1989.tb02524.x

]. A. Engelen and P. H. Randsdorp, Bibliography J. AOAC Int, vol.82, issue.1, pp.112-120

M. Minekus, M. Alminger, P. Alvito, S. Ballance, T. Bohn et al., Food Funct. J. Mater. Chem. B, vol.2014, issue.2, pp.1113-1137, 2014.

I. Zafeiri, J. E. Norton, P. Smith, I. T. Norton, F. Spyropoulos et al., J. Colloid Interface Sci Int. J. Toxicol. J. Drug Target Chem. Commun. (Camb). Colloids Surf. B. Biointerfaces Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci, vol.50013, issue.5, pp.228-240, 1204.

M. Sutter, S. Oliveira, N. N. Sanders, B. Lucas, A. Van-hoek et al., Chocolate Science and Technology Status of Safety Assessments of Food Additives Presently Permitted in the EU, Nordic Council Of Ministers, 18] N. T. Dunford, Food and Industrial Bioproducts and Bioprocessing, pp.181-192, 1985.

L. Fjerbaek, K. V. Christensen, B. J. Norddahl3-]-d, J. M. Pollard, Á. Woodley-garcia-galan et al., Microencapsulation in the Food Industry. [6] P. V. Iyer, L. Ananthanarayan, Process Biochem14] K. Labus, I. Gancarz, J. Bryjak, Mater. Sci. Eng. C 2012, pp.1298-1315, 1995.

M. Nasratun, A. Hasrul, A. Sureena, M. Aini, A. Ruwaida et al., J. Appl. Sci. Arica, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 2012 J. Phys. Chem. B J. Mol. Catal. B Enzym. Int. J. Biol. Macromol.Journal Mol. Catal. B, Enzym. Process Biochem, vol.21, issue.46, pp.2701-2704, 2006.

T. Zhang, L. Zhi, H. Zhang, H. Huang, V. Chen et al., Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 201245] N. Carlsson, H. Gustafsson, C. Thörn, L. Olsson, K. Holmberg, B. Åkerman, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci, pp.5693-5700, 1998.

M. Hartmann, X. Kostrov-yokogawa, R. Yamauchi, A. Saito, Y. Yamato et al., Chem. Soc. Rev. Biomed. Mater. Eng. Biochem. Eng. J. J. Phys. Chem. C, vol.201352, issue.114, pp.6277-6289, 2010.

M. Falahati, A. A. Saboury, L. Ma-'mani, A. Shafiee, H. A. Rafieepour et al., Journal Mol. Catal. B, Enzym. Walde, J. Mater. Chem. 2012 Bioresour. Technol. 2012 Bioresour. Technol. Talanta J. Biotechnol. J. Mol. Catal. B Enzym. Adsorption Biochim. Biophys. Acta -Proteins Proteomics Colloids Surfaces B Biointerfaces J. Biotechnol. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. Anal. Chem. J. Mol. Catal. B EnzymJournal Mol. Catal. B J. Memb. Sci. Biotechnol. Prog J. Biotechnol, vol.507677, issue.24, pp.1048-1054, 2001.

J. S. Beck, J. C. Vartuli, W. J. Roth, M. E. Leonowicz, C. T. Kresge et al., Microporous Mesoporous Mater, pp.10834-10843, 1992.

]. S. Kim, R. Diab, O. Joubert, N. Canilho, A. Pasc et al., Core???shell microcapsules of solid lipid nanoparticles and mesoporous silica for enhanced oral delivery of curcumin, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol.140, issue.5, pp.161-168, 1204.
DOI : 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2015.12.040

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01380399

T. Jesionowski, J. Zdarta, and B. Krajewska, Adsorption, vol.2014, issue.20, pp.801-821

Z. Quinn, Z. K. , and C. X. Dong, Biochem. Eng. J, vol.9, pp.33-40, 2001.

S. F. Prazeres, C. G. Ruiz, and G. M. García, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev, 2015.

W. Humphrey, A. Dalke, and K. Schulten, VMD: Visual molecular dynamics, Journal of Molecular Graphics, vol.14, issue.1, pp.33-38, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0263-7855(96)00018-5

R. F. Pereira-rodríguez, Á. Leiro, M. E. Cerdán, M. I. Siso, and M. B. Fernández, J. Mol. Catal. B Enzym, pp.52-53, 2008.

A. Pereira-rodríguez, R. Fernández-leiro, M. I. González-siso, M. E. Cerdán, M. Becerra et al., Structural basis of specificity in tetrameric Kluyveromyces lactis ??-galactosidase, Journal of Structural Biology, vol.177, issue.2, pp.392-401, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jsb.2011.11.031

A. Pereira-rodríguez, R. Fernández-leiro, M. I. Siso, M. E. Cerdán, M. Becerra et al., Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications, vol.30, issue.3, pp.297-300, 2010.
DOI : 10.1107/S1744309109054931

E. Krissinel and K. Henrick, Inference of Macromolecular Assemblies from Crystalline State, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.372, issue.3, pp.774-97, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jmb.2007.05.022

M. Becerra, E. Cerdán, M. I. Siso, . Biotechnol, and . Tech, , pp.253-256, 1998.

O. S. Pilipenko, L. F. Atyaksheva, O. M. Poltorak, E. S. Chukhrai, and R. , J. Phys. Chem. A, vol.81, pp.990-994, 2007.

C. Lei, T. Soares, Y. Shin, J. Liu, and E. J. Ackerman, Enzyme specific activity in functionalized nanoporous supports, Nanotechnology, vol.19, issue.12, p.125102, 2008.
DOI : 10.1088/0957-4484/19/12/125102

M. Vallet-regi, A. Rámila, R. P. Del-real, and J. Pérez-pariente, A New Property of MCM-41:?? Drug Delivery System, Chemistry of Materials, vol.13, issue.2, pp.308-311, 2001.
DOI : 10.1021/cm0011559

F. Tang, L. Li, and D. Chen, Adv. Mater, vol.2012, issue.24, pp.1504-1534

, FDA, 2009.

C. Contado, L. Ravani, and M. Passarella, Size characterization by Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation of silica particles used as food additives, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.788, pp.183-192, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.aca.2013.05.056

I. I. Slowing, C. W. Wu, J. L. Vivero-escoto, and V. S. Lin, , pp.57-62, 2009.

A. E. Nel, L. Mädler, D. Velegol, T. Xia, E. M. Hoek et al., Understanding biophysicochemical interactions at the nano???bio interface, Nature Materials, vol.20, issue.7, pp.543-557, 2009.
DOI : 10.1289/ehp.6000

M. M. Van-schooneveld, E. Vucic, R. Koole, Y. Zhou, J. Stocks et al., Improved Biocompatibility and Pharmacokinetics of Silica Nanoparticles by Means of a Lipid Coating: A Multimodality Investigation, Nano Letters, vol.8, issue.8, pp.2517-2525, 2008.
DOI : 10.1021/nl801596a

Y. Jin, N. Zhang, C. Li, K. Pu, and C. Ding, Zhu, Colloids Surfaces B Biointerfaces 2017, pp.240-248

J. Y. Choi, T. Ramasamy, S. Y. Kim, J. Kim, S. K. Ku et al., PEGylated lipid bilayer-supported mesoporous silica nanoparticle composite for synergistic co-delivery of axitinib and celastrol in multi-targeted cancer therapy, Acta Biomaterialia, vol.39, pp.94-105, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.actbio.2016.05.012

H. Meng, M. Wang, H. Liu, X. Liu, A. Situ et al., Use of a Lipid-Coated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle Platform for Synergistic Gemcitabine and Paclitaxel Delivery to Human Pancreatic Cancer in Mice, ACS Nano, vol.9, issue.4, pp.3540-3557, 2015.
DOI : 10.1021/acsnano.5b00510

N. Han, Q. Zhao, L. Wan, Y. Wang, Y. Gao et al., Hybrid Lipid-Capped Mesoporous Silica for Stimuli-Responsive Drug Release and Overcoming Multidrug Resistance, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol.7, issue.5, pp.3342-3351, 2015.
DOI : 10.1021/am5082793

Z. Wang, Y. Tian, H. Zhang, Y. Qin, D. Li et al., Using hyaluronic acid-functionalized pH stimuli-responsive mesoporous silica nanoparticles for targeted delivery to CD44-overexpressing cancer cells, International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol.11, pp.6485-6497, 2016.
DOI : 10.2147/IJN.S117184

P. N. Durfee, Y. S. Lin, D. R. Dunphy, A. J. Muñiz, K. S. Butler et al., Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle-Supported Lipid Bilayers (Protocells) for Active Targeting and Delivery to Individual Leukemia Cells, ACS Nano, vol.10, issue.9, pp.8325-8345, 2016.
DOI : 10.1021/acsnano.6b02819

J. Sun, D. Ma, H. Zhang, F. Jiang, Y. Cui et al., Organic Molecule-Modulated Phase Evolution of Inorganic Mesostructures, Langmuir, vol.24, issue.6, pp.2372-2380, 2008.
DOI : 10.1021/la702991r

S. H. Ahn, S. H. Kim, and S. G. Lee, Surface-modified silica nanoparticle-reinforced poly(ethylene 2,6-naphthalate), Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol.77, issue.2, pp.812-818, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0254-0584(02)00114-1

V. Athès and D. Combes, Influence of Additives on High Pressure Stability of ??-Galactosidase from Kluyveromyces Lactis and Invertase from Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol.22, issue.6, pp.532-537, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0141-0229(97)00253-6

P. S. Cremer and S. G. Boxer, Formation and Spreading of Lipid Bilayers on Planar Glass Supports, The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol.103, issue.13, pp.2554-2559, 1999.
DOI : 10.1021/jp983996x

F. Wang and J. Liu, , pp.3927-3931, 2014.

I. Pavel, S. F. Prazeres, G. Montalvo, C. Garcí-a-ruiz, V. Nicolas et al., , pp.3333-3340, 2017.

]. C. Bernal, L. Sierra, M. Mesa, B. Viski?, S. Juri? et al., Encapsulated Functional Bakery Ingredients, Methods and Compositions for Retarding the Staling of Baked Goods Microencapsulation in the Food Industry. [21] P. Ganesan, D. Narayanasamy, Sustain26] M. Gallarate, M. Trotta, L. Battaglia, D. Chirio27] C. Qi, Y. Chen, Q.-Z. Jing, pp.641-649, 1948.

C. Qi, Y. Chen, J. Huang, Q. Jin, X. Cruz et al., J. Sci. Food Agric. 2012 J Phys Chem B Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. Mater. Sci. Eng. C ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. J. Pharm. Sci, vol.9238, issue.106, pp.787-93, 2001.

H. A. Hassan, M. Florentin, B. N. Sandrine, D. Pierrick, J. Jordane et al., Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. Cortial, M. Vocanson, E. Loubry, S. Briançon, Flavour Fragr. J. Drug Deliv. Formul. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. Langmuir, vol.2012, issue.16, pp.309-324, 1981.

K. Selmeczi, C. Michel, A. Milet, I. Gautier-luneau, C. Philouze et al., Acta Biochim. Biophys. Hung. Biochem. J. Biochem. Eng. J, vol.43, issue.9, pp.9093-9106, 2001.

]. T. Zoungrana, G. H. Findenegg, W. Norde, . Prog, D. Biotechnol et al., 57] T. Coradin, J. Livage, Comptes Rendus Chim, pp.495-504, 1997.

, Appendix 2 Shea butter technical sheet INTEREXPORT SERVICES Fiche technique / Technical specifications Beurre de KARITE raffiné, 2012.

, Reference ies LABO HV014

, Mode Extraction process : Extrait par pression puis raffiné Obtained by pressure and refined Origine / Origin : AFRIQUE / AFRICA Aspect / Appearance : Solid couleur crème/Solid colour cream Nom INCI / INCI name : BUTYROSPERMUM PARKII, p.BUTYROSPERMUM PARKII

N. Cas and . Cas, , pp.194043-92

N. Einecs and . Einecs,

.. Durée-de-vie-recommandée, Shelf life : 2 ans / 2 years CARACTERISTIQUES/CHARACTERISTICS Valeur/Value Indice d'acide / Acid index (mgKOH /g)

P. Indice-de, Peroxide index (méq O 2 /kg)

.. Indice-d-'iode, Iodine value (gI2 /100g), pp.51-72

.. Teneur-en-insaponifiable-/-unsaponifiable-matter,

/. Point-Éclair and P. Flash, °C >290 Point d'ébullition / Boiling point°C >200 Point de fusion / Melting point, .°C 32 -44 COMPOSITION EN ACIDES GRAS/COMPOSITION IN FATTY ACIDS %

/. Acide-laurique and .. Lauric-acid,

/. Acide-myristique and .. Myristic-acid,

/. Acide-palmitique and .. Palmitic-acid, , pp.3-10

/. Acide-stéarique and .. Stearic-acid, , pp.36-50

/. Acide-oléique and .. Oleic-acid, , pp.40-50

/. Acide-linoléique and .. Linoleic-acid, , pp.3-8

/. Acide-linolénique and .. Linolenic-acid,

/. Acide-arachidique and .. Arachidic-acid,

/. Acide-gadoléique and .. Eicosenoic-acid,

/. Acide-béhénique and .. Behenic-acid,

/. Acide-lignocérique and .. Tetracosenoic-acid,

, E-mail: info@ieslabo.com www.ieslabo, Zone artisanale ? F 04 700 ORAISON Tél. 33 4 92 72 55 55 Fax. 33 4 92 72 55 56