La bordure nord de la plaque ibérique à l’Albo-Cénomanien Architecture d’une marge passive de type ductile (Chaînons Béarnais, Pyrénées Occidentales)

Abstract : Sub-continental lithospheric mantle rocks are exhumed at the foot of magma-poor distal passive margins as a response to extreme stretching of the continental crust. Remnants of the Northern Iberian paleo-passive margin are now exposed in the Northern Pyrenees in the Chaînons Béarnais (North Pyrenean Zone: NPZ) and represent field analogues to study the processes of continental crust thinning and subcontinental mantle exhumation. The NPZ results from the inversion of basins opened between the Iberia and Europa plates during Albo- Cenomanian times. In the Chaînons Béarnais ranges the pre-rift Mesozoic sedimentary cover is associated with peridotite bodies in tectonic contact with small size Paleozoic basement lenses. Continental extension developed under hot thermal conditions, as demonstrated by the syn-metamorphic Cretaceous ductile deformation affecting both the crustal basement and the allochtonous Mesozoic cover locally in direct contact with exhumed mantle rocks. In this study, we present structural and geochemical data providing new constraints to the knowledge of extreme crustal thinning processes and to reconstruct the evolution of the northern Iberia paleo-margin. The pre-rift cover was detached from its Paleozoic bedrock at the Keuper evaporites level and was welded to mantle rocks during their exhumation in the bottom of the basins. The crust/mantle detachment fault is a major shear zone characterized by anastomosed shear bands defining a plurimetric phacoidal fabric at the top of the serpentinized mantle. Raman Spectroscopy on Carbonaceous Materials (RSCM), performed on the Mesozoic cover reveals that the entire sedimentary pile underwent temperatures ranging between 200°C and 480°C. This sedimentary pile displays numerous evidence of infiltration by geological fluids. The fluid/rock interactions went on during the entire extensional events, since early deep phases characterized by ductile deformation, to late shallower stages characterized by brittle deformation. The detachment is marked by a layer of metasomatic rocks, locally up to 20 meters thick, made of talc-chlorite-pyrite-rich rocks that developed under greenschist facies conditions, including fluids derived from mantle rocks serpentinisation. Moreover, isotopes geochemistry (O, C, Sr) and microthermometry/Raman spectrometry of fluid inclusions in a network of calcitic veins (with quartz locally) in the overlying sediments reveal moderate temperatures (~220°C) brines circulation through the whole sedimentary cover during mantle exhumation. These brines likely derived from the dissolution of the local Triassic evaporites, rarely preserved in the Chaînons Béarnais. We developed a conceptual model based on geological evidence from the Chaînons Béarnais. Implying ductile deformation of the middle crust. Counter-regional detachments (dipping toward the continent) are associated to the individualization of mid-crustal thin tectonic lenses which remain welded on the mantle rocks and are exhumed at the floor of the Albian-Cenomanian basins, leaving behind the upper and the lower crust. These crustal lenses welded on mantle rocks then form a large zone of extremely thinned continental crust. Breaking points in this thin crustal sheet allow mantle rocks to come in direct contact with the pre-rift sediments (Saraillé, Turon de la Técouère). Breaking points in the pre-rift cover allow mantle rocks to be completely exhumed to the seafloor (Urdach-Les Pernes). We show that: (i), the pre-rift sediments have undergone drastic syn-metamorphic thinning with the genesis of a S0/S1 foliation and, (ii) the Paleozoic basement has been ductilely deformed, forming thin tectonic lenses that remained welded to the exhumed mantle rocks. Therefore the overall crustal rheology appears controlled by the presence of a thick pre- and syn-rift decoupled cover acting as an efficient thermal blanket. This new geological data set highlights that the Northern Iberian margin is a ductile type passive margin characterized by a narrow necking zone and a large zone of extremely thinned continental crust where mantle rocks are locally denudated. These results represent a new contribution to the understanding of mechanisms of extreme crustal thinning associated with mantle exhumation; furthermore, these allow to identify major structures involved in the structural inheritance during tectonic inversion.
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Benjamin Corre. La bordure nord de la plaque ibérique à l’Albo-Cénomanien Architecture d’une marge passive de type ductile (Chaînons Béarnais, Pyrénées Occidentales). Sciences de la Terre. université rennes 1, 2017. Français. ⟨tel-01834468⟩

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