Contribution to flight guidance in high density traffic

Abstract : This work is developed with the perspective of SESAR and Next-Gen projects, where new applications of Air Traffic Management (ATM) such as the Full 4D Management concept, are centered on Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO), deeply related with the extension of the flexibility in separation between aircraft, and hence, with the augmentation of air traffic capacity. Therefore, since a shift from fixed routes and Air Traffic Control (ATC) clearances to flexible trajectories is imminent, while relying on higher levels of onboard automation, the thesis hinges around topics that should enable or ease the transition from current systems to systems compliant with the new expectancies of Trajectory-Based Operations. The main axes of the manuscript can be summarized in three topics: 4D trajectory generation, 4D guidance, and mass estimation for trajectory optimization. Regarding the trajectory generation, the need of airspace users to plan their preferred route from an entry to an exit point of the airspace without being constrained by the existent configurations is considered. Thus, a particular solution for 4D smooth path generation from preexisting control points is explored. The method is based on Bezier curves, and is able to control the Euclidian distance between the given control points and the proposed trajectory. This is done by reshaping the path to remain within load factor limits, taking into account a tradeoff between path curvature and aircraft intended speed, representing a milestone in the road towards Trajectory-Based Operations. It is considered that accurate 4D guidance will improve safety by decreasing the occurrence of near mid-air collisions for planned conflict free 4D trajectories. In consequence, two autopilots and two guidance approaches are developed with the objective of diminishing the workload for air traffic controllers associated to a single flight. The backstepping and feedback linearization techniques are used for attitude control, while direct and indirect nonlinear inversion are adopted for guidance. Furthermore, the impact of inaccurate mass knowledge in trajectory guidance, with consequences in optimization, fuel consumption, and aircraft performance, has led to the implementation of an on-board aircraft mass estimation. The created approach is based on least squares, providing an initial mass estimation, and online computations of the current mass, both with enough accuracy to meet the objectives related to TBO. The methods proposed in this thesis are tested in a six degrees of freedom Matlab model with its parameters chosen similar to an aircraft type B737-200 or A320-200. The simulation is based on a full nonlinear modelling of transport aircraft dynamics under wind disturbances. Trained neural networks are used to obtain the aerodynamic coefficients corresponding the aircraft forces and moments.
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Héctor Escamilla Núñez. Contribution to flight guidance in high density traffic. Signal and Image Processing. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30074⟩. ⟨tel-01833564v2⟩

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