Les émissions de composés organiques volatiles (COVs) des sols dans les paysages agricoles : identification des sources et incidences sur la qualité de l'air

Abstract : Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are trace carbonaceous gases emitted in low concentrations from the continental and marine surfaces to the atmosphere. Highly reactive, these compounds are involved in atmospheric chemistry and are at the heart of many current environmental issues such as climate change related to greenhouse gases, air quality and feedback on the functioning of ecosystems. Terrestrial plant cover was previously identified as the main source of VOCs of biogenic origin. But recent studies suggest that soils could be major sources of VOCs. However, in agricultural anthropogenic landscapes, soils are subject to various and varied uses and management and are likely to modify qualitatively and quantitatively the patterns of VOC emissions. Paradoxically, agrosystem soils have been the subject of few inventories of their VOC emissions. The scarcity of knowledge on the contribution of agrosystems soils in VOC emissions motivated this work of thesis in which three objectives were pursued : i) inventory the spectra and quantify the VOCs fluxes emitted by soils in agricultural landscapes (ii) to determine the role of soil microorganisms in emissions and (iii) to identify the abiotic determinants controlling VOC emissions by soils. A first part of the work has consisted in analyzing the temporal dynamics of VOCs emissions in the field, in two observatory sites representative of the Britain agricultural landscape : the EFELE site (SOERE-PRO) comprising cultivated soils subjected to contrasting fertilization practices, and the Zone Atelier Armorique (ZAAr) including fertilized permanent meadows and wet meadows characterized by a low degree of anthropization. The second step of the work was conducted in the laboratory to clarify and complete the field observations, two series of laboratory experiments were conducted to manipulate, i) the soil organic carbon source via the input of different model molecules (ii) microbial communities by transplanting natural microbial communities into three distinct soils. This study has generated technical advances and produced entirely new results concerning both the characterization of spectra and the quantification of biogenic VOC fluxes emitted by soils. Thus, we show, in the laboratory and in the field, that a soil emits about forty masses of which only a few (1 to 4) are dominant. These VOC spectra are also specific to land uses (crop vs meadow) and fertilization practices. We also show that : i) there is a temporality of VOC emissions by soils ranging from 22 to 167 μg of VOCs per m−2 h−1, the winter period is the least emissive and ii) adds that some fertilization practices, such as pig slurry, induce a flux of methanol up to 10 times that observed by soils amended with methanised pig slurry. Regarding the role of soil microorganisms in VOCs production, we demonstrate that the VOCs spectrum is not representative of the phylogenetic diversity of the soil community but rather of the metabolic activity of active microorganisms. As for the exploration of abiotic determinants that can regulate emissions, our results suggest that the addition of organic molecules to the soil induces a rapid change in the VOC spectrum emitted by the soil, ranging from a few hours to a few days after intake. This modification is dependent on the degree of polymerization of the molecule provided. All research suggests that VOC emissions by soils are not negligible. Their key position in terms of issues requires to be of greater interest and to take them into account in future scenarios of global changes (climate and land uses), especially with regard to emerging practices of soil management in connection with the ecological transition initiated in agriculture. Similarly, the consideration of VOCs emissions in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon and that of nitrogen to better understand the functioning of ecosystems is also discussed in this document.
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Kevin Potard. Les émissions de composés organiques volatiles (COVs) des sols dans les paysages agricoles : identification des sources et incidences sur la qualité de l'air. Sciences agricoles. Université Rennes 1, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017REN1B058⟩. ⟨tel-01831899⟩

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