Estimation des précipitations sur le plateau des Guyanes par l'apport de la télédétection satellite

Abstract : The Guiana Shield is a region that is characterized by 90% of a primary rainforest and about 20% of the world’s freshwater reserves. This natural territory, with its vast hydrographic network, shows annual rainfall intensities up to 4000 mm/year; making this plateau one of the most watered regions in the world. In addition, tropical rainfall is characterized by significant spatial and temporal variability. In addition to climate-related aspects, the impact of rainfall in this region of the world is significant in terms of energy supply (hydroelectric dams). It is therefore important to develop tools to estimate quantitatively and qualitatively and at high spatial and temporal resolution the precipitation in this area. However, this vast geographical area is characterized by a network of poorly developed and heterogeneous rain gauges, which results in a lack of knowledge of the precise spatio-temporal distribution of precipitation and their dynamics.The work carried out in this thesis aims to improve the knowledge of precipitation on the Guiana Shield by using Satellite Precipitation Product (SPP) data that offer better spatial and temporal resolution in this area than the in situ measurements, at the cost of poor quality in terms of precision.This thesis is divided into 3 parts. The first part compares the performance of four products of satellite estimates on the study area and attempts to answer the question : what is the quality of these products in the Northern Amazon and French Guiana in spatial and time dimensions ? The second part proposes a new SPP bias correction technique that proceeds in three steps: i) using rain gauges measurements to decompose the studied area into hydro climatic areas ii) parameterizing a bias correction method called quantile mapping on each of these areas iii) apply the correction method to the satellite data for each hydro-climatic area. We then try to answer the following question : does the parameterization of the quantile mapping method on different hydro-climatic areas make it possible to correct the precipitation satellite data on the study area ? After showing the interest of taking into account the different rainfall regimes to implement the QM correction method on SPP data, the third part analyzes the impact of the temporal resolution of the precipitation data used on the quality of the correction and the spatial extent of potentially correctable SPP data (SPP data on which the correction method can be applied effectively). In summary, the objective of this section is to evaluate the ability of our method to correct on a large spatial scale the bias of the TRMM-TMPA 3B42V7 data in order to make the exploitation of this product relevant for different hydrological applications.This work made it possible to correct the daily satellite series with high spatial and temporal resolution on the Guiana Shield using a new approach that uses the definition of hydro-climatic areas. The positive results in terms of reduction of the bias and the RMSE obtained, thanks to this new approach, makes possible the generalization of this new method in sparselygauged areas.
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Justine Ringard. Estimation des précipitations sur le plateau des Guyanes par l'apport de la télédétection satellite. Météorologie. Université de Guyane, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017YANE0010⟩. ⟨tel-01831004⟩

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