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Modélisation, contrôle/commande et certification d'un micro-réseau électrique décentralisé avec entrées exogènes aléatoires et informations contraintes

Abstract : Since many years, the energy sector is undergoing significant changes. Awareness of global warming, the objective to use reduce greenhouse gas but also the scarcity of fossil energy, encourage the world to promote the use of more and more renewable energies. Electric microgrid are one of the opportunities new market on which Schneider Electric wants to launch.Microgrid are a scaled-down version of a national grid with specific objectives such as energy security, lower greenhouse gas emissions and so on. They are composed of several renewable sources (photovoltaic, wind for example), generators set, but also storage and consumers. They can be connected to a main grid or islanded. Since islanded microgrid are intrinsically composed of renewable producers with static converters, the natural grid inertia is particularly low compared to that of a classic grid with rotating machine. With this consideration, a load impact or a sudden drop of production due to renewable intermittency can destabilize the network and create chain reactions leading to a total grid blackout.Among the microgrids target markets, island whose electricity production is mostly provided by generators set presents the objective of improving an existing grid by adding renewable sources to production. These grid face strong communication constraints which can be difficult to establish, unreliable or non-existent. Thus, conventional microgrid commands do not allow to answer the presented problem.Objective of this thesis is to design the control algorithms of islanded microgrid without communication to ensure both frequency stability and to maximize renewable energy use.The presented work can be summarized in four main stages. First, several simulation models of microgrid subsystem will be defined for islanded microgrid analysis.These models will then be used to define control laws of a decentralized microgrid without communication. They will be used, inter alia, to compare performances of this decentralized control with a conventional centralized control.The third stage of the thesis will present the probabilistic certification of the decentralized algorithms in order to guarantee the desired performance.Finally, the work will end with simulation results and a real experimentation phase with the test on a 100 kVA microgrid to validate operation of algorithms.
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Jean Dobrowolski. Modélisation, contrôle/commande et certification d'un micro-réseau électrique décentralisé avec entrées exogènes aléatoires et informations contraintes. Energie électrique. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAT111⟩. ⟨tel-01825302⟩

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