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Diversité et caractérisation fonctionnelle des communautés microbiennes inféodées au peuplier et issues d'une friche industrielle enrichie en mercure

Abstract : Soil has a natural capital that gives it the capacity to produce ecosystem services, cultural as well as regulation or supply, it is essential to the Life as we know it and the development of human activities. However, anthropogenic activities and pollution, in particular by trace elements (ETs) such as mercury (Hg), disrupt the soil and modify in depth the organization of ecosystems. Facing these challenges, remediation and management projects for polluted sites and soils have emerged during the last decades with a view to future re-exploitation of these soils. This thesis is part of the ANR-BIOFILTREE and EC2CO FREIDI-Hg projects managed by the Chrono-Environnement laboratory. My Ph-D work explored the diversity of microorganism communities associated with a poplar plantation at a Hg-contaminated site managed by phytomanagement, combining approaches such as very high-throughput sequencing and conventional culture-based techniques. These combined methods revealed i) the diversity of the bacterial and fungal communities of the poplar plantation; ii) the groups of microorganisms particularly resistant to Hg (Trichoderma and Pseudomonas); and iii) plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB). In addition, understanding the cellular mechanisms related to the accumulation of Hg by microorganisms was one of my objectives carried out in collaboration with the LIEC (University of Lorraine). The eukaryotic models Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Podospora anserina were used to test the potential role of some ion transporters in the entry of Hg into fungal cells. The results showed that the magnesium transporter Alr1 located on the plasma membrane could participate in the transport of Hg. In addition, a transcriptomic approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae after a short exposure to Hg of mutant and wild strains has been implemented. To conclude, this work aims to be a reference work for future phytomanagement projects in Hg-contaminated environments, which highlights micro-organism communities and their fundamental roles.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, June 27, 2018 - 1:49:09 PM
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Alexis Durand. Diversité et caractérisation fonctionnelle des communautés microbiennes inféodées au peuplier et issues d'une friche industrielle enrichie en mercure. Ecosystèmes. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017UBFCD037⟩. ⟨tel-01824587⟩

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