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Le patrimoine de la nébuleuse protosolaire : le rapport isotopique de l'azote des nuages interstellaires à des systèmes planétaires

Abstract : The existence of interstellar molecules raises the question, are thesemolecules the same molecules we see on the Solar system today? Thisis still an open question with far reaching consequences. Some lightmay be shed on this issue if we are able to trace the heritage of agroup of chemically linked molecules, a so-called reservoir. The besttool to trace the heritage of reservoirs are isotopic ratios. The elementthat shows the largest isotopic ratio variations in the Solar system isnitrogen. For this is an indication that the isotopic ratio of nitrogen issensitive to the physical conditions during star formation.The main objective of this thesis is to identify the reservoirs of ni-trogen at different stages of star and planet formation. The first stepin this endeavour was to identify the isotopic ratio of the bulk of ni-trogen in the local ISM today. This was determined to be 323 ± 30from the CN/C 15 N ratio in the protoplanetary disk around TW Hya.Along with it we also measured the HCN/HC 15 N= 128 ± 36 in theprotoplanetary disk around MWC 480. This very distinct nitrogen iso-topic ratios on protoplanetary disks are a clear indication that thereare at least two reservoirs of nitrogen in protoplanetary disks. Howthese reservoirs get separated is however unknown. This could pos-sibly happen due to chemical fractionation reactions taking place inprestellar cores. We therefore aimed to obtain an accurate direct mea-surement of the nitrogen isotopic ratio of HCN in the prestellar coreL1498.To obtain this measurement the most important hurdle to overcomewere the hyperfine anomalies of HCN. These hyperfine anomaliesarise due to the overlap of hyperfine components. They are especiallysensitive to the column density of HCN, but also to the velocity fieldand line widths. Thus hyperfine anomalies are a tool to measure theabundance of HCN and to probe the kinematics of prestellar cores.To accurately reproduce the hyperfine anomalies, and thus mea-sure accurate column densities for HCN, we needed to explore adegenerate parameter space of 15 dimensions. To minimise the de-generacies we have derived a density profile based on continuummaps of L1498. This reduced the parameter space to 12 dimensions.The exploration of this parameter space was done through the useof a MCMC minimisation method. Through this exploration we ob-tained HCN/HC 15 N = 338 ± 28 and HCN/H 13 CN = 45 ± 3. Theuncertainties on these values are calibration limited and determinednon-arbitrarily by the MCMC method. Implications of these resultsare discussed in the concluding chapter, where we also present somefuture perspectives.
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Victor de Souza Magalhaes. Le patrimoine de la nébuleuse protosolaire : le rapport isotopique de l'azote des nuages interstellaires à des systèmes planétaires. Solar and Stellar Astrophysics [astro-ph.SR]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAY095⟩. ⟨tel-01824304⟩

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