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Etude des partenaires protéiques associés aux homodimères et aux hétérodimères des récepteurs couplés aux protéines G

Abstract : Melatonin is a neurohormone secreated by the pineal gland in a circadian manner. This hormone is involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms, sleep, retinal physiology, seasonal reproduction and various neuronal functions. Melatonin exerts its effects through two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) called MT1 and MT2. GPCRs are known to form homo- and heterodimers, but the physiological relevance of these complexes remains a matter of debate. An increasing number of reports show that the function of these GPCR complexes is not restricted to the regulation of heterotrimeric G proteins but include also the regulation of other proteins like transporters and ion channels. Here, we report the formation of MT1/MT2 heterodimers in mouse retinal rod photoreceptors and show that the enhancing effect of melatonin on light sensitivity in these cells requires the activation of the heteromer-specific Gq/PLC/PKC signaling pathway. This study demonstrates the physiological relevance of GPCR heterodimerization.We next searched for new MT1 and MT2 interacting proteins in an unbiased manner by performing several proteomic and genetic screens. An interactome of 378 proteins was built. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of several presynaptic proteins (voltage-gated calcium channel Cav2.2, SNAP25, Synapsin and Munc-18) in the MT1 interactome. Presynaptic localization of MT1 and spatial proximity with presynaptic proteins was confirmed in mouse and rat brains. Among these potential partners, we show that MT1 physically interacts with Cav2.2 in CHO cell line and inhibits Cav2.2-promoted Ca2+ entry in an agonist-independent manner suggesting a regulatory role of MT1 in neurotransmitter release.Another proteins identified in the screens was the dopamine transporter DAT. Physical interaction of DAT with melatonin receptors decreased DAT cell surface expression and diminished dopamine uptake in HEK293 cell. Supporting this result we found using the in vivo model of melatonin receptors knockout mice a respective increase of dopamine uptake in synaptosomal preparations of the striatum of supporting the physiological relevance of these GPCR/transporter complexes. In conclusion, this report shows that GPCR interactome building provides new insights into receptor function, like retinal and neuronal functions of melatonin receptors in our case. Formation of GPCR/GPCR, GPCR/ion channel and GPCR/transporter complexes may have a reciprocal functional impact, on the activity of the receptor and interacting partners thus elucidating new molecular mechanisms cellular cross-talk.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01823848
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Submitted on : Tuesday, June 26, 2018 - 3:07:24 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01823848, version 1

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Abla Benleulmi-Chaachoua. Etude des partenaires protéiques associés aux homodimères et aux hétérodimères des récepteurs couplés aux protéines G. Biochimie [q-bio.BM]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA11T018⟩. ⟨tel-01823848⟩

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