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Le récepteur NMDA, un nouvel acteur du remodelage vasculaire dans l'hypertension artérielle pulmonaire

Abstract : Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease characterized by an increase in the mean pulmonary arterial pressure, due to a deep vascular remodeling leading to the progressive obstruction of the small pulmonary arteries. The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is a glutamate receptor playing a crucial role in the neuronal synaptic communication. It is also present in peripheral cells, including aortic and cerebral vascular cells, and promotes their proliferation. Moreover, NMDAR contributes to proliferation of cancer cells. As pulmonary vascular cells exhibit a cancer-like hyperproliferative and apoptotic-resistant phenotype in PAH, we hypothesized that the activation of pulmonary vascular NMDARs may contribute to the vascular remodeling leading to PAH. We found that pulmonary vascular cells express the main features of a functional synaptic-like glutamatergic communication through NMDARs. In PAH, glutamate accumulates in pulmonary arteries, and endothelin-1, a major actor of the PAH-associated vascular remodeling, triggers glutamate release from smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, the NMDAR is mobilized and its function may be altered due to an unbalanced expression ratio of the NMDAR subunits. Moreover, NMDAR activation contributes to vascular cell proliferation and angiogenesis, key features of PAH pathophysiology. Finally, studies with NMDAR antagonists and vascular NMDAR-knockout mice showed that vascular NMDARs are involved in pulmonary hypertension. These results suggest that NMDAR is a new actor of the vascular remodeling and could represent a new therapeutic target in PAH. They also bring new pieces to the vascular/nervous parallels.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01823839
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Sébastien Dumas. Le récepteur NMDA, un nouvel acteur du remodelage vasculaire dans l'hypertension artérielle pulmonaire. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015SACLS139⟩. ⟨tel-01823839⟩

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