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Theses

Agir en sécurité : le réglé et le géré dans la propulsion nucléaire

Abstract : The implementation of safety barriers – particularly through approaches based on the standardization of operator activity – has led, over the years, to significant improvements in the safety of systems such as nuclear power plants. Such systems can be considered today as ultra-safe systems. The thesis defended here posits that system safety lies both in these safety barriers and in the skills of the human operators involved. Safety should, therefore, be viewed as a combination of a consistent set of normative resources in order to control risks (regulated safety), and a set of adaptive resources enabling operators to cope with unexpected situations (adaptive safety). An empirical study was conducted to investigate this question. It focuses on teams supervising two nuclear systems that are similar, but where the role ascribed to the human operator regarding safety management varied. In the first system, normative safety predominates, leading to a vision of operators who must be compliant in order not to be viewed as “defective”. In the second system, adaptive safety is emphasized, and operators are viewed as full-fledged actors of system safety. The results show safe management of situations on both systems. However, this management is based on very different team behaviors. Adaptive behaviors appear in adaptive teams, supported both by the emergent team organization and by a specific training approach. Adaptive behaviors are also visible in normative teams. However, such behavior is at odds with team organization and with the training approach, which can be said to be non-constructive. The results are discussed in terms of global safety and of “safe action”.
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Cécile Masson. Agir en sécurité : le réglé et le géré dans la propulsion nucléaire. Sociologie. Conservatoire national des arts et metiers - CNAM, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013CNAM0870⟩. ⟨tel-01823827⟩

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