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Origine de la diversité géochimique des magmas équatoriens : de l'arc au minéral

Abstract : Arc lavas display a complex geochemistry resulting from the heterogeneity of primitive magmas and their transformation within the crust. Identifying primitive magma compositions in continental arcs is challenging because continental crust is thick and acts as a mechanical and chemical filter for ascending magmas. This issue is particularly criticial in Ecuador owing to the great thickness of the continental crust (≈ 50-60 km) and the scarcity of erupted primitive magmas. This thesis aims to determine the composition of primitive silicate melts in the Ecuadorian arc, on the scale of the whole arc, as well as on the scale of two volcanic edifices: the Pichincha and the Tungurahua. This study also intends to better understand how those primitive melts evolve during their journey through the continental crust. In Ecuador, slab dip, relief and age change from north to south. Hence, the first part of the PhD focuses on the influence of those parameters on magma geochemistry, through a whole rock study covering the entire arc. It confirms the across-arc geochemical variations described by previous studies: an increase of incompatible element contents and a decrease of fluid-mobile over fluid-immobile element ratios from west to east. We identify along-arc geochemical variations in the volcanic front (e.g. Ba/Th), related to the changing nature of metasomatic fluids, which are aqueous fluids at the centre of the arc (around 0.5°S) and silicate melts to the north and probably to the south. This change may be due to the subduction of a younger and warmer oceanic crust to the north, which might promote slab melting. Lastly, it seems that deep crustal contamination increases towards the south of the volcanic front. Secondly, volcanic products emitted for the last 3,000 years at Tungurahua are studied. On this timescale, the tectonic parameters of the first study are constant. This work details the role of continental crust in the production of differentiated magmas, which are systematically associated with more explosive eruptions. We conclude that andesites have heterogeneous isotopic compositions (206Pb/204Pb = 18.834 - 19.038), acquired at depth (mantle or deep crust), that homogeneize through andesite differentiation to dacite (206Pb/204Pb = 18.965 - 19.030) by fractional crystallization and assimilation of the local upper crust (7-9 %). Lastly, the third part of the PhD focuses on the heterogeneity of primitive magmas. We study individual minerals from Pichincha and Tungurahua volcanoes and show that most minerals are in disequilibrium with their host rock (up to 8,600 ppm for 206Pb/204Pb). The diversity of Pichincha minerals allows the identification of mantle melt diversity (206Pb/204Pb = 18.816 - 19.007), with compositions forming a tight trend in Pb-Pb isotope spaces. As for Tungurahua whole rocks, crustal assimilation erases the diversity of primitive melt isotope signatures through differentiation, so that primitive melt signatures are not preserved in whole rock samples. At Tungurahua, individual minerals show that the heterogeneity of isotope compositions is acquired at depth. The analysis of two olivine fractions reveals the existence of a radiogenic signature in the mantle source of Tungurahua volcano, interpreted as the presence of delaminated crust within the mantle beneath its edifice. Finally, olivine fractions from seven Ecuadorian volcanoes highlight the fact that no unique primitive signature exists in the arc. Isotopic heterogeneity is entirely inherited from the mantle (206Pb/204Pb = 18.583 - 19.000). Primitive melt compositions are then shifted by continental crust contamination which, in most cases, results in more radiogenic signatures.
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Submitted on : Monday, June 25, 2018 - 12:59:06 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, March 4, 2020 - 12:12:02 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Wednesday, September 26, 2018 - 1:35:39 PM


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  • HAL Id : tel-01822623, version 1


Marie-Anne Ancellin. Origine de la diversité géochimique des magmas équatoriens : de l'arc au minéral. Sciences de la Terre. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017CLFAC083⟩. ⟨tel-01822623⟩



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